June 20, 2010

by Ali Moeen Nawazish / Political Science & Intl. Relations / University of Cambridge

Winston Churchill said in the House of Commons in 1947: “Many forms of government have been tried, and will be tried in this world of sin and woe. No one pretends democracy is perfect or all wise. Indeed it has been said that democracy is the worst form of government, except all those other forms that have been tried from time to time.(including dictatorship)”

Intuitively democracy is seen as perfect and without corruption. However, Churchill and the question seem to pose a contrary notion. Corruption can persist in democracies, and a glance at the news proves that it does, but why? Corruption is perhaps part of human nature, at times, or a failure of the system. I do not condone dictatorship in this article. I cannot see a valid argument for a pro dictator regime and would put to pen a qualification of that statement but not now. The purpose of this article is to enable a discussion on why there is corruption in democracies.

Before even beginning to address this question, there are three conceptual issues that need to be resolved: what exactly is a democracy, what is corruption, and what is the relation between them if any. The last one is important, as its purpose is to legitimize the question. If democracy has no impact on corruption then the mention of democracy becomes irrelevant, as corruption would exist without it, so a link (positive or negative) between democracy and corruption is needed to begin presenting a theoretical reasoning for the existence of corruption.

Starting with defining what democracy is, Joseph Schumpeter (1943 p.271) describes democracy as a “free competition for a free vote”. The first condition of democracy is that adult citizens have a right to vote, and the second is the presence of free and fair elections that are competitive. The focus in this account is on the holders of office and their elections, not necessarily the actions of the office bearers. The actions of the office bearers are kept in check by accountability measures within the government, as the United States Government Accountability Office (US GAO) does in the United States, auditing government actions and is the investigative arm of the US Congress.

Yet, there also exist broader definitions of democracy that extend beyond elections, and equality of voting, to an active participation by adults. Elections alone are not a singular dimension of democracy and even if elections are free and fair, coercion outside the electoral process can render elections useless. Active participation is both direct in terms of standing for election and voting, and indirect in terms of joining political groups or voicing opinion, protesting and engaging office bearers or politicians on specific issues.

The definitions of democracy as proposed by Dahl and Schumpeter range from minimalist to maximalist extremes. Therefore, the question arises whether democracy is a matter of degree. Giovanni Satori (1987), maintains that political systems are ‘bounded wholes’ and democracy should be classified as either present or not- democracy is a ‘sortal’ measurement. On the other hand, Hyland (1995) has argued that a more ‘scalar’ view to democracy is more appropriate and just describing it as a ‘sortal’ concept is not compelling.Robert A. Dahl in Democracy and its Critics (1989 p.106-31) defines democracy as having five base criteria: effective participation, voting equality, enlightened understanding, control of the agenda, and inclusiveness. But, Dahl, regards ‘a regime that is completely or almost completely responsive to all its citizens’ as an unattainable ideal or a theoretical utopia. So, for him politically advanced countries are ‘polyarchies’ which feature a ‘representative system with a widely inclusive adult electorate.’ The defining features of ‘polyarchies’ are free and fair elections, inclusive suffrage, rights to run for office, freedom of expression and availability of alternative information and associational autonomy. So while Dahl’s theoretical utopia is unattainable and ‘polyarchies’ are the closest a state can be, Dahl’s definition can be considered as the gold standard against which the degree and quality of democracy of any state can be measured.

For the purpose of this article, democracy is considered both a ‘sortal’ and a ‘scalar’ concept. Where a state would be judged to be democratic based on the minimalistic idea of democracy, investigated whether the degree of democracy has had an impact on the presence of corruption within that democracy.

There is relatively less consensus on how to define corruption. than there is on the definition of democracy. The most common definition of corruption is by J. S. Nye (1967), who argues that corruption is, “behavior which deviates from the normal duties of a public role because of private-regarding (family, close private clique), pecuniary or status gains; or violates rules against the exercise of certain types of private-regarding influence. This includes such behavior as bribery (use of reward to pervert the judgment of a person in a position of trust); nepotism (bestowal of patronage by reason of ascriptive relationship rather than merit); and misappropriation (illegal appropriation of public resources for private regarding uses).”

In terms of bribery, Jacob Van Klaveren (1957) argues that a bureaucrat views his or her public office as an enterprise from which he or she can earn extra-legally. These forms of income occur more in economies heavily under government regulations. Civil servants or public office bearers may devote most of their time and effort in assisting entrepreneurs or enterprises in evading state laws or statues, in exchange for extra legal income or special benefits given to the officials.

The defying of public interest can also be classified as corruption, as argued by Carl Friedrich (1990): “the pattern of corruption may therefore be said to exist whenever a power holder who is charged with doing certain things, that is a responsible functionary or office holder, is by monetary or other rewards, such as the expectation of a job in the future, induced to take actions which favor whoever provides the reward and thereby damage the group or organization to which the functionary belongs, more specifically the government.”

Lobbying too falls under this category, because for personal benefit the office bearer chooses not the interest of the government, or the people but of a particular special interest group.

Whether processes common in democracies, such as vote buying, campaign financing or statistical manipulation of elections results are corruption, can be classified as corruption is debatable. While these may not be direct forms of corruption they implicate it. The candidate buying votes would see his or her action as an investment to be profited from or remade through extra-legal income, so indirectly it becomes a form of corruption. Similarly with campaign finance, it can be seen as an early bribe given to candidates for services required by the donor in the future. Statistical manipulation is generally done by present governments to retain their power, so if a government is able to carry out indirect corruption there is a high chance it will carry out direct corruption too.

These aspects of corruption are neither perfect nor complete, each has its limitations. Nye’s definition extends to the personal benefit of the office bearer, and so the Watergate abuses in the US might be excluded as they were for the benefit of the Republican party, and not President Nixon personally. Similarly the normative rules that Nye talks about raise the problem that as different countries criteria for corruption varies, a benchmark for corruption can not be defined universally. Donating money to political candidates by large corporations is legal in countries like the US (although requiring disclosure), but illegal in France. Yet, the above discussion is a good starting point for analyzing corruption, and why these aspects of corruption are present in democracies.

Corruption is also a matter of public perception and acceptance, and the degree of the corruption relates to how it is perceived and whether it is accepted. Arnold Heidenheimer (2001), emphasizes the differences between, ‘black’, ‘white’ and ‘grey’ corruption. ‘Black corruption indicates that in that setting that particular action is one which a majority consensus of both elite and mass opinion would condemn and would want to see punished as a matter of principle.’

Whereas ‘grey corruption’ indicates that only particular elements of society, usually the elites, would see it as corruption, but most would not and the majority would possibly be ambivalent. Lastly, ‘white corruption‘ refers to forms of corruption that both the elite and mass opinion would not vigorously support to get punished.

Before analyzing the factors responsible for the persistence of corruption, the statistical relationship of democracy with corruption needs to be established. Ades and Di Tella (1999 p.987) and Fisman and Gatti (2002 p.336-338) do not find any association between the political and/or civil rights associated and corruption.  Goel and Nelson (2005 p.127 and 130) find that corruption declines with the degree of civil liberties associated, Chowdhury (2004 p. 96 and 98) finds that corruption declines with Vanhanen’s (1992) democracy index, while Triesman (2000 p.417) finds that the duration of democracy, defined as the number of uninterrupted years in which a country is democratic, reduces corruption. Michael Rock (2007 p.32), found a link between corruption and durability of democracy occurs at a relatively young age—between 4 and 15 years, ‘‘these conclusions suggest that at least some low income countries have been able to reduce corruption in the early years of their democratic transitions”. He finds a inverted U – shaped relation between democracy and corruption. The different research and findings, shows the complicated nature of the problem. For instance, India has been a democracy for 63 years now, and its ranked score in the Transparency International’s Corruption Perceptions Index has improved consistently from 2.7 in 2002 to 3.4 in 2007. Why the improvement after some fifty odd years, and why now? But, perhaps the more important question is why does corruption still exist in India, despite the fact that it has been classified as a democracy and has been for 63 years?

The answer to the question is divided into four parts. The first two focus on democracy itself, on how the quality of democracy and features of democracy effect corruption. The second two focus on factors outside democracy, namely the economy and economic model of a state, and the attitudes and perceptions of the civil of society.

In terms of the quality of democracy, a good democracy is based on fundamentals as outlined by Dahl, and the pillars of democracy the executive, the legislature, the judiciary and the press keep checks and balances on one an other to ensure there is accountability, and corruption does not occur. However, if the pillars or the inherent features of a democracy are not present, or not functional in spirit, then corruption is bound to exist.

The judiciary, public accounts committee or accountability organizations, and the media in particular are important in terms of reducing corruption as they directly investigate and prosecute cases of corruption within states. The media and accountability organizations bring issues of corruption to light and the judiciary delivers justice. A weakness in these pillars increases corruption, as it is easier to not get caught. Ce Shen (2005 p.336-337) argues that, “a poor legal system characterized by a lack of power to monitor the actions of high ranking government officials and economic elites, incomplete laws, and a lack of transparency is easily exploited by corrupt government officials.” Theobald (1990) and Ali and Isse (2003) have found that efficient legal systems have a positive effect on corruption control.

Corruption is widespread in a low quality or immature democracy. Empirical Analysis by Pellegrini’s and Gerlagh’s (2008) findings suggest that a long exposure (30 years) to uninterrupted democracy is associated with lower corruption. The relationship between democracy and corruption, as discussed in the relation of corruption to democracy also supports the same. It can be argued, that even in the most developed democracies corruption still exits. However, the important thing to note is that the degree of corruption changes. For instance, in India over the past two years one of the biggest corruption scandal was the laundering of USD 90 million by Madhu Kodas, a provincial chief minister. Whereas in the UK it was the MP expense cases, where MPs were exploiting their allowances to “subsidize their homes and lifestyle.”

The second part of the answer thus considers the very nature of democracy itself. Democracy requires voting, and participation. This opens up the possibility of campaign finance or lobbying, and vote buying and statistic manipulation. These forms of corruption are unique to democracy. Susan Rose-Ackerman, writes “Democratic elections are not invariably a cure for corruption.” She argues that there is great pressure on the politician in terms of campaign finance in democratic elections, and wealthy interests are willing to foot the bill. This leads to the agenda of such interests being put forward, whether or not it is of public interest and benefit. In addition, some politicians try to make up the money they have spent, and in Japan politicians who assist local companies in obtaining government contracts expect a percentage of the price in return (Qui 1996 p.231). The same principle can also be applied to the executive and legislature, wanting to earn using their power in an attempt to make up the spent money on campaigns. Special interest groups may also influence office bearers or public officials to vote on or enact certain policy in a certain fashion.

In terms of vote buying and statistical manipulation, the election candidates typically either seek to secure votes by giving monetary bribes to the electorate or the candidates, particularly those up for re-election, use their power to manipulate the final statistic. Rose-Ackerman argues that voters benefit from direct pay-offs, but the limitation is not just to pay offs but also to promises of government sector jobs. Patronage and votes based on association can also be said to be vote buying, because the voting decisions are not made on policy or manifestos. This is a common practice, as in Italy political ‘bosses‘ also make use of public funds to sponsor vote buying (della Porta 1996). Similarly in Spain (Heywood 1996 p.125-127) and Thailand vote buying is common, and in Thailand there was even a promise of a post-election bonus if the candidate won.

Statistic manipulation is typically used by those in power, and is often done with the aid of intelligence agencies and government agencies among others. An instance of statistic manipulation happened during the Iranian elections of 2009. BBC Iranian affairs analyst Sadeq Saba found abnormalities in the manner the results were announced – in millions and not by province. This suggested that Mahmoud Ahmadinejad did equally well in rural and urban areas, while his three opponents did equally badly in their home regions and provinces as in the rest of the country. This was unusual of Iranian politics, as Ahmadinejad’s popularity was concentrated in the rural areas and he was unpopular in the urban areas. There has been no definitive evidence of fraud, but there were reasons for suspicion which led to the mass protests.

The second part of the answer is concerned with factors outside the construct of democracy. In terms of the economics and economic model of a particular democratic state, and its impact on corruption there are two perspectives. But, it is more straight forward, and the literature more conclusive.  The first is that the underdevelopment which forces people to resort to corruption out of poverty, and the second is that rapid development or modernization provides avenues for corruption.

Daniel Triesman (2000 p.5) argues that, “Both the demand for and the supply of corrupt services may be greater in less developed societies. Social mores regarding corruption are often thought to vary with the level of economic development.” Lower economic development could then account for why people sell votes, or why public officials due to low salaries would need to accept bribes – possibly for a better standard of living for their family or even to make ends meet.

The second perspective is that its not underdevelopment but rapid modernization, that becomes a cause for corruption. Huntington (1968) argues that abuse of public office for private gain becomes prevalent when there are sources of wealth and power seek to influence the political sphere. In terms of enterprise corruption, rapid modernization leads to more companies being formed or working in the state, and hence public officials or office bearers are bribed to facilitate these new activities. Modernization also disrupts political and regulatory institutions; sometimes the institutions are unable to keep up with new developments.

In fact it is not just about modernization and underdevelopment. Government interventions via regulations and licenses increase the incidences of corruption. So, while it is to some extent a matter of economic development, it is also a matter of how the economy and markets are managed and regulated. For instance in India’s case there has been a reduction in corruption in the past decade, and market liberalization around the same time can also help account for that. Therefore, more regulations whether in rapidly modernizing states or underdeveloped states result in more corruption.

However, the corruption due to rapid modernization or underdevelopment (Xin and Rudel 2004) is mostly phenomenons from the underdeveloped world. Even in democracies in countries with higher income corruption does exist in the absence of other interventions (Kaufmann and Kraay 2001). Ce Shen (2005) argues that Corruption is in no way confined to developing countries; it is widespread in many developed countries as well. In fact, most African countries rank low in corruption control, but Botswana is actually ranked higher than would be expected given the level of economic development it has (Theobald and Williams 2000; Transparency International 2004). Again, the explanation is in market regulation, Ce Shen (2005 p.9) argues that even economically stronger or developed states, “usually measured by government expenditure over GDP, are associated with corruption…” The stronger states usually have larger bureaucracies, and there is evidence of a positive association with the size of bureaucracy and level of corruption (Ali and Isse 2003).

The last part of the answer relates to the civil society, which effectively is the largest stakeholder in a democracy. The factors under consideration with regards to the civil society are the perceptions of the public, culture or tradition of a society, the literacy or awareness within the society about corruption, maturity in terms of exposure to democracy, and what effect society segmentation has on corruption.

As mentioned that corruption has shades defined by peoples’ perception, as democracy is in theory a system of governance focusing on the people until or unless the people raise their voice against corruption it will continue. The reason for grey and white corruption can also be attributed to culture and tradition.  According to Guy Wint: “In nearly all Asian countries there has always been a tradition of corruption.”

Triesman (2000) argues that in “traditional societies” bribery transactions are not clearly held as bad, and public and private spheres are less clearly defined in less developed countries. Gunnar Myrdal argues that in developing countries “a bribe to a person holding a public position is not clearly differentiated from the ‘gifts,’ tributes, and other burdens sanctioned in traditional, pre-capitalist society or the special obligations attached to a favor given at any social level.” (Myrdal 1970, p.237; also Ekpo 1979).

Yet the question arises that why do such traditions keep being accepted? The answer lies in the lack of awareness, or in the developing world in the illiteracy of the public, which is oblivious to what is right or wrong. In the developing world there is also a case of the public not getting any time to engage in eradicating corruption, because of their own poverty. It is an ironic cycle, but for instance the average per capita income in Pakistan is 1,044 USD, or 2.9 USD a day which is barely enough to meet day to day expenses. The public has no time to indulge in an effort to eradicate corruption, or fulfill their responsibilities as citizens fully. The lack of awareness can also pertain to the lack of press freedom, Chowdry (2004) argues that press freedom does not bring a substantial change in corruption levels; however, in terms of spreading awareness to the masses it is important. Awareness amongst people about elections, democracy and corruption would also increase, perhaps more so with press freedom.

In terms of social segmentation, Triesman (2000) also discusses ethnic polarization. ‘Members of ethnic groups may feel that demanding favors from co-ethnics in office is the only effective way to obtain government services. At the same time, the supply of corrupt services may be increased by the social leverage that ethnic leaders have over officials of their ethnicity: fear of social ostracism may make them reluctant to refuse their co-ethnics’ demands.’ Easterly and Levine (1997) also found a relationship between ethnic fragmentation and growth-retarding public policies. In such cases ethnic identity supersedes national identity, and the focus of the ethnicity or even any other group is for its own benefit not that of the state. This effectively leads to corruption because the norms and standards of the public office are not upheld with such biases.

It is important to note that the identified factors do not work independently. They are inter-related; as for instance vote buying is supported by low economic conditions, and lack of a strong democracy with institutions to control such actions. So, the persistence of corruption can be attributed to these factors, not independently but also in the way that they complement each other.

This theoretical analysis, gives a basis for the existence of corruption within and despite democracy, but now looking at a case study will help in understanding its real world application. Pakistan, founded as a democracy in 1947 in the partition of British India, ranks  139th in the Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) in 2009, it also ranks poorly in other measures of corruption. It has been ruled by both democratic and military governments, although military governments have put up parliaments for show. In ‘sortal’ terms, the Islamic Republic of Pakistan currently is a democracy with a popularly elected government, but as shown by the index it does exhibit corruption. Can the four reasons identified as the answer explain why corruption exists in Pakistan despite it being a democracy?

The quality of democracy in Pakistan is not high. Elections in Pakistan have been subject to rigging throughout the past forty years with high levels of pre and post poll rigging, Gillani (2008 p.9). Inclusive suffrage does not exist, as in a statement by the Asian Human Rights Commission stated that in the 2007 elections, which were subsequently postponed to 2008, ‘at least 88 million voters should be eligible to vote,’ in the ‘2002 elections there were 71.86 million voters” and it was impossible that ‘in 2007 the numbers dwindle to a mere 56 million.’ Only the rich elite and feudal lords run for office, as it is impossible for the ordinary man to run due to financial constraints. Press freedom in Pakistan has seen a great rise in the past decade, although the press freedom has been under military rule as opposed to a democratic rule, the press is still strong in Pakistan according to Khan (2009), but he does say that there have been crackdowns against the media in the military government of General Pervez Musharraf who shut it off completely in November 2007 as he declared emergency rule.

Pakistan has had interrupted exposure to democracy in its 63 years, with not even a single elected government completing its term. Military rule has been common, so there is limited analysis that can be done in case of Pakistan, and limited data is available to form any conclusion about effects of exposure of democracy, although there are suggestions according to the CPI that Pakistan has shown an improvement in corruption from 2004 to 2009, a change from military to democratic rule. At the same time corruption was even less than 2009 in 2002 under a full military rule.

So with a low quality democracy or weak democracy in scalar terms corruption has been able to take root in Pakistan and the judiciary in Pakistan provides an example. The judiciary in Pakistan has generally been under the influence of the executive, and decisions passed in favor of the ruling civil or military government. Pakistan’s supreme court has thrice approved a military coup and declared it legal, and similarly government corruption has been accepted and approved by the judiciary. Iftikhar Chaudry became the Chief Justice of Pakistan in 2005, and according to Hamid Khan (2009) made efforts to strengthen the judiciary. He took a Suo Moto action against the privatization of Pakistan Steel Mills citing irregularities in the process. There were similar important verdicts, and the judiciary was even deposed by General Musharraf, but was reappointed after massive public protest. Today, the higher judiciary in Pakistan is seen as a symbol of hope, and regularly keeps regular checks on the current government. Recently, it curbed an attempt to assign rental power projects in Pakistan citing kickbacks and a corruption of USD 557 million. This shows how institutional strength due to a stronger or higher quality of democracy lowers corruption.

From the second part of the answer, elections in Pakistan have not been fair as mentioned with rigging of polls common as shown by Gillani (2009). In terms of corruption specific to democracy this is one in which generally the ruling party rigs polls to favor itself or other parties, and this is and example of the statistical manipulations that occur. Secondly, in terms of campaign finance, in Pakistan elections are generally contested by people with the resources to contest them, there is no concept of fundraising and the rich elites contest for elections and they have to make the money spent or ‘invested’. The current Prime Minister Yousuf Raza Gillani talked about selling family land to fund politics[interview to Sohail Warraich Aik Din Geo]. Nawaz Sharif, the Prime Minister of Pakistan in 1998 was issued notifications of duty exemption on import of industrial products and raw materials when the imports were for industries owned by the him and the Sharif Family. Pakistan is different as campaign finance stems from personal wealth rather than wealth of donors, but again it is not implausible that donors finance campaigns with agendas in mind.

In terms of vote buying in Pakistan, Khurram Dastagir (Member of National Assembly of Pakistan 2008) argues that vote buying exists in Pakistan at the rural levels. Empirical evidence on the matter is not available, but according to him vote buying in Pakistan constitutes of either of association to a tribe or family(the voter prefers to vote for members of the his tribe or family) or by force from feudal lord, who forces workers on his land to vote for him and this is widespread due to the agricultural nature of Pakistan’s economy and the majority of citizens being employed on farm. Poverty also has a direct impact on the same associations as laborers and farmers who are afraid of being removed from the feudal’s lands. There is little direct monetary transfer.

In economic terms, under-development, rapid modernization and development models can be seen at work in Pakistan. Salaries in Pakistan are very low; civil service salaries in 2008 ranged from about 30 USD for a clerical worker to about 120 USD a month for a grade 18 officer (equivalent to a superintendent of police), and is insufficient for basic necessities. Normal schooling for a child in primary costs about 50 to 60 USD a month. This results in widespread corruption amongst these civil servants. Survey results for 2002 indicated that a remarkable 100 percent of the respondents who had any type of contact with the police over the previous year were confronted with corruption. In terms of rapid development and modernization, the privatization of state owned companies such as the Pakistan Steel Mill gives an example of how corruption takes root in such scenarios. However, as Pakistan has not yet seen political stability, the case cannot support an argument for political stability leading to longer trends of corruption.

In terms of the last part of the answer, the perception of people is open to corruption where most corruption is seen as white or grey. 44% of Pakistanis paid bribes to access electricity by paying a bribe, and 99% had encountered corruption when dealing with tax authorities. However, it is not just a matter of acceptance, as said people feel powerless, and with low salaries across the country corruption is not the priority for most.

Pakistan also gives examples of other reasons for corruption suggested in this essay, which includes Ethnic Polarization (Farhat Haq 1995), the awarding of government contracts in exchange for benefits (u4 Report), and lobbying by foreign power against public opinion and consensus (Pkpolitics Survey Shows 88% of Pakistanis believe that the majority of politicians and top generals in reality facilitate foreign meddling into Pakistan’s internal affairs).

It can be concluded that corruption exists in democracies because of factors that are both present in democracies and factors outside democracy. Corruption persists because of a low quality of democracy which means institutions aren’t able to operate, as they need to curb corruption. It also persists because the democratic process opens avenues for corruption, which if not rigorously monitored, allow exploitation such as vote buying, campaign finance and lobbying. Economic factors also fuel corruption, where underdevelopment, or even rapid development provide avenues for corruption. Lastly the persistence of corruption in democracies is also attributed to the maturity of the civil society, their experience with democracy, their awareness about corruption, and the perceptions towards corruption.

However, it is important to acknowledge that the answer given is not complete or absolutely comprehensive. The problem with analyzing corruption is that it is not obvious, and intended to be hidden. The case does support the theoretical model described in the first half, and does not at points where it is not applicable. This brings another point to light that corruption and its reason for existence also vary from situation to situation or state to state. The answer gives part of the picture that low quality democracy attributes to weak institutional strength leading to corruption; features common in democracies provide additional avenues for corruption; factors outside democracy also provide avenues for corruption- the most important of which is perhaps the way people perceive democracy.

“TO BRING CHANGE PERCEPTIONS HAVE TO CHANGE”

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70 Comments

  1. Malik Zafar says:

    There is no corruption in Pakistan, and Corruption does not persist in Democracy at least in Pakistan.
    The roots of Democracy are so deep in Pakistan that now all decisions are in taken in ‘ ‘Awam ke Adalat’, to give you an example the Awam gave votes to Peoplea Party and approved the NRO, the ‘Awam ki Adalat’ has elected Jamshed Dusti…….how can Corruption persist in Democracy when the Awam solves all the problems through Awam ki Adalat.
    There is absolutely NO corruption in Pakistan.

  2. nautilus says:

    the Pakistani people voted for PPP and the other political parties. these parties pass the laws in parliament, so they are the law. how can you say what Zardari is doing is corruption, when Zardari is the law? do you want to stop corruption? well, you know the answer don’t you, next time don’t vote these dakoos into power. if you really can’t stand corruption, then feel free to remove PPP from power right now.

  3. amandamarion says:

    @nautilus

    Corruption is everywhere in the world. it is not a big issue.

    People voted president Zardari for his sacrifices for democracy. even if he rules next 20 years it will not comensate his sacrifices.

    he spent 9 years in jail
    he lost his wife
    his children lost their mother
    he lost his brother in law
    his mother in law is in hospital

    I am sure people will keep electing him for his sacrifices, because we are not a selfish nation.

  4. Leviathan says:

    @amandamarion

    Ahhhh well then yes sacrifices equal to presidency

    But see the thing is I know this “dhoobi ka kuta”(Washer’s Dog)

    Now his story is really sad… I mean he made loads of sacrifices:

    he spent 15 years locked up ever since he was a small innocent puppy (he also made a brief appearance in a film while in jail… but that is irrelevant)

    he lost his wife too!!

    and duh if he lost his wife his children lost their mother too

    but see he also lost his sisters and brothers and obviously his nieces and nephews lost their parents

    he also lost his brother in laws

    his mom and dad are both in the hospital

    he works all day at the poor washery(ghaat)

    and he makes next to nothing… gets beaten around everday

    but he makes this sacrifice for Pakistan…

    DHOOBI KA KUTTA FOR PRESIDENT OF PAKISTAN!!!! – due to his great sacrafices to the country!!!!

  5. Share چھبیس ہزار تین سو روپے میں پڑنے والا ووٹ….کٹہرا…خالدمسعود خان

    جلال پورپیروالا کے ضمنی الیکشن میں وزیراعظم سید یوسف رضا گیلانی نے اپنے برادرخورد کو صوبائی اسمبلی میں بھجوانے کے لئے ہر حربہ استعمال کیا۔ علاقے کے تمام وڈیروں اور سیاستدانوں کا تو کئی بار ذکر ہوچکا ہے لیکن سب سے مزے دار حرکت یہ کی کہ مسلم لیگ ق کے فارورڈ بلاک کے ایم پی اے مہدی عباس لنگاہ نے درمیان میں دوبارہ نغمہ مشتاق لانگ کی حمایت کرنے کی کوشش کی تو اس کے برادر کلاں سے جو پی آئی اے میں افسر ہے اس کا کمرہ فارغ کروالیا گیا اور اس کمرے کو سینئر اسٹاف ایسوسی ایشن کے حوالے کردیا گیا۔ تاہم دو دن بعد ہی معاملہ طے ہوگیا۔ برادرکلاں کو اس کا کمرہ واپس مل گیا اور مجو سائیں کو مہدی عباس لنگاہ کی دوبارہ حمایت مل گئی۔ سرکاری فنڈز کا بے دریغ استعمال ہوا۔ قریباً آٹھ ہزار بجلی کے کھمبے جلالپور پیروالا میں لا کر پھینک دیئے گئے۔ ایک محتاط اندازے کے مطابق ایک کھمبے کی قیمت قریباً گیارہ ہزار روپے ہے اور اس پر دیگر لوازمات لگا کر اوسط فاصلے پر نصب کرنے اور تار لگانے کا خرچہ قریباً چودہ ہزار روپے فی کھمبا پڑتا ہے۔ ہر بیس کھمبوں پر ایک پچیس کے وی اے کا ٹرانسفارمر لگایا جائے تو قریباً چار سو ٹرانسفارمر بنتے ہیں جن کی کل مالیت بحساب ڈیرھ لاکھ فی ٹرانسفارمر قریباً چھ کروڑ روپے بنتی ہے۔ واپڈا کا کل خرچہ قریباً چھبیس کروڑ روپے اور گیس کی فراہمی کے اعلان کا متوقع خرچہ قریباً ساٹھ کروڑ روپے یعنی کل چھیاسی کروڑ روپے بنتا ہے۔ فرزانہ راجہ نے بے نظیر سپورٹ پروگرام کے تحت جو رقم تقسیم کی ہے۔ اس کی تفصیل میسر نہیں مگر شنید ہے کہ وہ بھی کروڑوں روپے میں ہوگی۔ ریلوے جیسے خسارے میں چلتے ہوئے بلکہ حقیقتاً ڈوبتے ہوئے جہاز پر مزید چار سو کے قریب ملازم سوار کروا دیئے گئے اور رینجرز میں کم از کم بھرتیوں کی اطلاع ہے۔ یہ کل خرچہ قریباً ایک ارب روپے سے زائد بنتا ہے۔ اس کے علاوہ جو سب سے محیر العقول واقعہ وقوع پذیر ہوا وہ تحصیل جلال پور پیروالا میں پاسپورٹ آفس کے قیام کا اعلان ہے۔ ملتان ڈویژن میں ضلع خانیوال ، وہاڑی اور لودھراں تک نادرا کے پاسپورٹ آفس سے محروم ہیں جبکہ پاکستان کے ایک سو پانچ اضلاع میں موجود قریباً پونے چار سو کے لگ بھگ تحصیلوں میں سے کسی کو بھی یہ شرف حاصل نہیں کہ وہاں پاسپورٹ آفس ہو مگر وزیراعظم پاکستان کے برادرخورد کی امیدواری کے طفیل اس تحصیل کو پاکستان بھر میں یہ واحد اور انوکھا اعزاز حاصل ہوا کہ وہاں نادرا کا پاسپورٹ آفس قائم ہونے کا اعلان ہوا۔الیکشن سے قریباً بیس روز قبل برادرم پرویز رشید کی جانب سے دیئے گئے ایک کھانے کے دوران میری اسی موضوع پر خواجہ سعد رفیق سے گرما گرمی بھی ہوئی اور میرے ایک سوال پر خواجہ سعد رفیق نے اپنے سینے پر ہاتھ مار کر کہا کہ وہ جلال پور پیروالا آئیں گے مگر انہیں یہ وعدہ بھی بھول گیا۔ مجو سائیں اینڈ کمپنی نے یہ منصوبہ بندی کی کہ جہاں جہاں نغمہ مشتاق لانگ کو زیادہ ووٹ پڑنے کی توقع ہے وہاں پولنگ میں رکاوٹ ڈالی جائے۔

    —————————————————————
    ہمارے ہاں کرپشن کی ایک بری وجہ مختلف محکموں میں سیاسی وابستگیوں کی بدولت نا اہل لوگوں کی بھرتی ہے. آپ پی آئی اے کی مصال لے لیں جہاں سیاسی بھرتیوں نے پوری ائر لائین کا بیڑا غرق کر دیا ہے کیونکہ وہاں مجو سین کی طرح کے لوگ بھرتی کے گئے ہیں. پی آئی اے کے مقابلے میں دو چھوٹی ائر لاینز بلیو ائر اور شاہین ائر بھی اسی ملک سے اپنے آپریشنز کرتی ہیں اور دونوں منافه بھی کما رہی ہیں اور ترقی بھی کر رہی ہیں جبکہ پی آئی اے دن بدن نیچے ہی جا رہی ہے.
    جیالوں کو مبارک ہو بابر ا عوان غریبوں کے چار کروڑ روپے پھونک کر اسلام آباد سے ملتان وکیل خریدنے کے لئے جہاز کراے پر لے کر گیا ہے. اگر یہ حکومت اپنی مدت پوری کر گی تو بہت سارے غریب قبل از وقت ہی الله کو پیارے ہو جاییں گے

  6. Y he dont scrafise prusedency for they sake of Pakistan, he cant because he killed his wife for this higher rank he remain in jail becusse he looted pakistan. His childrens without mom because their father is most corrupt person in Pakistan, he killes his brother in law because he was biggest threat in his way for looting and he is scared thats y he dont Allow to bring his mother in law in front of every one because she tell every one the will of Benazir is faked and he imposed him self in PPP , thats y i call this party Zardari league insted of PPP

  7. Waseem Jafree says:

    @Masood Ahmad
    I have put up the following comment under ‘DO TOK’ programme but will fit here as well on the subject of Corruption:-
    ————————————————

    • Zardari and Jamshed Dusti for Interanational Personality Award
    • Hassan Khan for ‘ BB NRO Memorial Award.
    • Altaf Hussain, Gen Musharraf and Salman Taseer for Nobel Peace Award.
    • Babar Awan and Rehman Malik for Pride of Performance Award.
    * Maulvi Diesel and Asfandyar Wali for ‘be-imani’ Award

    NO AWARDS FOR ABDUL SATTAR EDHI, IMRAN KHAN AND JUSTICE IFTIKHAR.

    If you or any one else have any other nominations for any other Award then please let me know quickly before this Heading is removed from this thread.

    Please be quick. Thanks.

  8. mir munsif says:

    Corruption always persists even more in dictatorship days.But due to establishment’s alliance with Media,Mulla and judiciary,they always get clean chit without any accountability.Moreover same dictators breaks constitution to stop corruption (Though breaking constitution bears capital punishment+Judiciary legitimizes that quo+Pro Establishment Media builds up environment for it and supports it.) but when ever they give away their dictatorship,they leave country in complete MESS.While in democratic system,even smallest corruption act is magnified as if it were a cause of all mess,I dont support the corruption but I mean to say that corruption is also used as mean to legitimize the extra constitutional means to over throw Govts.

    *The biggest number of loans from bank were waived during dictatorship eras.
    Mush era: The total amount waived off as loans from 1971 to 1996 is Rs37 billion rupees while Rs68.7 billion loans were waived off from 1997 to 2009.* 22,021 people benefited from waiver of loans worth Rs 202bn from 1997 to 2009.

    *Ayub Khan rooted the seed of corruption by awarding route permits and licenses to start various business concerns and the military dictators including General Yayha Khan, General Zia-ul-Haq and General (r) Pervez Musharraf followed the footsteps of their predecessor.

    It was because of the dictatorships of Ayub, Yahya, Zia and Musharraf that today, even after 62 years, Pakistan is struggling to achieve success and prosperity and its people are deprived of the basic necessities of life. The answer to a flawed democratic system is certainly not dictatorship and it is this thinking that has destroyed Pakistan from within. Pakistan is still bearing the brunt of the actions and decisions of the past despots. Not one country in the world that is successful and prosperous today is run by a military regime or the system

  9. justice says:

    Since the article began with a quote from Winston Churchill I would want to comment on Mr Churchill who we so proudly refer or infer our wisdom from.
    Mr Churchill as we all might know was a great “Lota”.During first World war it was well known that in England anyone can be trusted but Mr Churchill. He was ostentatious,pompous and at personal level very financial irresponsible.
    Mr Churchill’s wisdom was mostly limited to great speeches writings.BTW he also served as Britan’s Finance Minister around the GreatDepression Era.

  10. Shakeel Bajwa says:

    @mir munsif……your comment @ 1.52 pm

    You said that the Military Establishment is responsible for this situation……..OK then why the fraud champion of Democracy… the BB Shaheeeeeeeeeeed signed the NRO deal with GENERAL MUSHARRAF, hence she got the nick name of ‘BB NRO Waali’ ( The stone erected on her grave also reads…..This is the grave of NRO Waali)….and why Zardari gave full Guard of Honour to Gen Mushrraf , and why Zardari every time goes to London, invites Altaf Hussain and Gen Musharraf to his house for dinner. The bitter reality is Pakistan only gets economically stronger under the Military Rule, the classic example is the era of Ayub Khan and Gen Zia.

    And why Army is backing MQM in Karachi and covers up all the target killing and why Zardari is keeping MQM with him to prolong his tenure. You Sindhi’s hate MQM every bit but the truth is that Zardari has no choice and have to work MQM.

    One thing I will say after the re-election of Jamshed Dusti, that this stupid, jahil and junglee awam will go on electing Peoples Party. And that’s why when Army takes over, they are welcomed by the Public. And this is the right time for Ch Iftikhar to give a call to Gen Kiyani for implemetation of Supreme Court Orders on NRO cases.
    I will even say that Taliban should attack the President House to get rid of Zardari, becasue he gave Guard of Honour to Gen Musharraf.

  11. Mujtaba says:

    @ Shakeel Bajwa said:
    @mir munsif
    ………….

    باجوہ صاحب ، میر صاحب …..
    ااپ لوگ کیا باتیں کر رہے ہیں … الطاف کو تو چھوڑیں وہ تو بندہ ایسے مارتا ہے جیسے ہم سوتے میں کروٹ لیتے ہیں کہ احساس بھی نہیں ہوتا کے ٣، ٤ یا ١٠ ،١٢ لوگ .. انسان مار دیئے ہیں … یہ زرداری بی بی نواز شہباز سب… ان کے لئے انسانی جانوں کی کارکنوں کی اور لوگوں کی زیاندگیاں کوئی اہمیت نہیں رکھتیں .. ان کا اصل مقصد اقتدار اور ایوان ہوتا ہے … آپ لوگ بڑی معصومانہ باتیں کیا کرتے ہیں …
    زرداری کو کیا لگے کہ ایم قیو ایم کتنوں کو مار رہی ہے .. وہ جب تک اقتدار میں ہے اس کو ہر چیز قبول ہے … میں یہ زرداری کے لیے نہیں کہہ رہا اس کی جگہ کوئی بھی ہو یہی کرے گا … ….
    ان کے اصول ان کی باتیں صرف اقتدار کے لیے ہوتی ہیں … یہ کہتے کچھ ہیں اور ان کے دل میں کچھ اور ہوتا ہے … یہ عوام کو کہہ کر بتا کر بیوقوف بناتے ہیں … اور عوام .. پرہے لکھے ہوں یا انپڑھ … ان کا کام صرف اندھی محبت اور اندھی نفرت ہے …
    اسی لیے میری گزارش ہے کہ آپ بھی اندھی محبتوں میں مت پڑے گا اور اگر مبتلا ہیں تو چھوڑ ڈی جیے ان کو محبت کرنی ہے تو اس کا حق صرف سور صرف اس وطن کو اور پاک سرزمین کو ہی حاصل ہے کہ اس سے وارفتہ اور اندھی محبت کی جائے

  12. Nawab Saab says:

    Well done Richard Holbrooke, you have really given a hard slap on the face of our stupid Govt by saying this while in our own Country that we should not trade with Iran and we should not take gas from Iran.

    Ideally this situation should not have happened because in order to meet the Energy Shortage we should have constructed Kala Bagh Dam Project. By blaming Gen Musharraf that why the dam was not constructed in his tenure, is not a justifiable reason. This so called champion of Democracy..Zardari needs the support of ANP (and MQM). Under present Govt there is no chance that Kala Bagh Dam can be constructed).

    Now America will pressurise Pakistan in various ways and Zardari will bow down to pressure and in turn America can pressurise Pakistan for violating UNO Resolution. ( Please remember that America did not want Ch Iftkhar to be restored).

    As I said earlier that Kala Bagh Dam will not be constructed and I do not see Gas coming from Iran and we are busy in renting over-priced Mobile Power Plants and we are busy in electing intellectuals like Jamshed Dusti.

  13. Mujtaba says:

    about the article
    an excellent piece of writing but sill it has a shortcoming of not covering the whole aspect … when we talk about some thing we have to touch the antinomy of that subject as well …. if we are discussing democracy then we must talk about dictatorship as well to see what happens in them …
    i am putting up some points and some statistics to judge what actually contributes in corruption …
    according to the survey reports on corruption in Pakistan in last 20 years the eras of governments can be listed in descending order as per rate or amount of corruption
    according to survey report (1988 to 2008 … does not include the current govt.)

    1- 2nd tenure of Mushraf (most corrupt govt. in the last 20 years and perhaps in the history of Pakistan)
    2- 2nd tenure of BB
    3- 2nd tenure of NS
    4- 1st tenure of BB
    5- 1st tenure of NS
    6- 1st tenure of Musharaf (least corrupt in last 20 years )

    Strangely the least corrupt and most corrupt era were of a dictator …
    so saying that democracy holds corruption is not that valid …
    if we are talking about the corruption in governments then I must say this is highly partial and incomplete view …. corruption lies in the core of the system, culture, environment and society …. it is a national level phenomenon ….
    my question is Are we corrupt nation ?… the answer is yes .. we are …
    With out going into details as i think most of you know how is that .. my other question is Are we the most corrupt nation? … absolutely NO … we are not .. we are Muslims we can not be most corrupt …. even nations as EU and US have a lot of corruption but the judiciary system in those countries is such that few could survive after doing some thing anomalous ….
    in fact we are forced to be corrupt … if we have to give money for getting a legal right of ours .. if we have to pay to survive or get life … if we are eased up in lives after spending some more money in bribes …. if the law is only for poor and the respect is only for the rich and powerful … then what can one expect from the society ….
    so if our judiciary system becomes strong impartial and active and a common man develops trust in it we can eliminate corruption as much as there is in New Zealand or Sweden … perhaps less than them …
    other thing is thinking of democracy as a blessing and not a responsibility after so much and so many of dictatorial regime as free human we start thinking of democracy as a blessing instead of a responsibility . we do not think that it is a liability and an obligation of taking care of democratic practices … and before we could ever realize that what does this mean another era of dictatorship comes in …
    so corruption in democracies are always come with help of dictatorships …
    so the moral of the story is say no to dictatorships … say no to corruption

  14. sahamd says:

    The dilemma is neither the democracy nor the corruption are clearly explained or understood. The above article is exactly same kind of situation as our democracy is. The current system of Democracy in the world is for holding the Office of Power to make laws and those laws are thought and made after the Gain of Power. This is the key problem in all Existing Democracies and that is why corruption is related to Democracy. It is Natural Phenomenon that when the Powerful makes the law it consider himself first for every kind of gain. Just look at any Business organization or Company and you will understand that how our DEMOCRACY works. Corruption in my understanding is Gian of any kind made by defying or bypassing the law but there is the legal corruption too which is to make laws in such a way that it gives to upper hand due to Office.

  15. fullmoon says:

    i wrote earlier for this guy ali moeen nawazish who is publishing his paper here. which i believe is part of his degree requirement in UK.

    this is intellectual dishonest on the part of this Ali.

    this forum is for article and opinions and should not be used by just one to reprint his thesis here.

  16. @fullmoon

    Ok to make one thing clear this is not my thesis article :)

    It is actually an article I spent a lot of time on, and alas I admit academic practice has led to me to write in an academic tone with references, for that I apologize.

  17. mir munsif says:

    @Ali Moeen Nawazish

    With due respect…Is it an academic writing or propaganda effort to academize selected references to develop anti democratic sentiments?

  18. Masood Ahmad says:

    @mir munsif

    The problem is when the Army Generals never waste a chance to jump in, isn’t it the duty of democrates to lead by example ?.

    It’s the same old story of 90’s, one party doing backhand deal with Milatary regime, while the other party waits for it’s turn. I don’t think we have learnt lessons from that erra of 90’s.

    I do agree the Generals LOVE to occupy office at will, that’s an established fact. But what the democrates have done ?

    Whenever there is a clash between a political govt and an army general, the party in opposition aligns itself with the General. It happened a lot of times in the 90’s, and yet again happened in the form of NRO.

    What has changed … what the politicians have done to stop it ?.
    The issue is it’s a game of passing the parcel, bloody game of power and nothing else.

    I know you have never agreed to me on this forum, but just think.

  19. Shakeel Bajwa says:

    Today is a very sad and a ‘manhoos’ day for Pakistan, today is the birthday of BB NRO Waali. She is a Fraud Shaheed and she was dishonest and corrupt from top to bottom.
    Once again we will see Jamshed Dusti leading the crowd and One Million will turn up in Naudero and will keep singing and dancing all day.

    Tell me who is complaining about shortage of electricity, food or water…… NO ONE……Zardari knows how to make public fool in the name of Bhutto.

  20. Mujtaba says:

    @ Masood Ahmad said:
    @mir munsif
    ———-
    sir ji … main ne barri mehnet ker ke itnay lambay comments likhay lagta hia merey bhaion ne perhay hi nahin .. :(

    @ Shakeel Bajwa
    nahin bajwa sahib .. achi baat nahin hai .. hum guzray huye logon ki aisay buraai nahin kertay .. sakht gunah hai aur ikhlaqiat main bhi yeh aik buri bat hai …
    sharai nuqtah nazar se halat e eeman main alaa e qatal se halaak honay wala muslmaan shaeed e asgher kehlata hai …
    baaki mujhay aap ki kisi bat se inkaar nahin hai ke mohterma ne jo kuch kiia zindagi main .. lekin jo ker gayin ab yeh un ka aur un ke ALLAh ka muamla hai
    hamain apnay amaal ka jawab dena hai …
    nahin?
    aur jo log aisi batain kertay hain jo heq such per mabni nahin hai aur ap ko , mujhay ya kisi aur ko ghussa dilati hain .. hamain un per sabar ka hukem hai ta keh aisi baat na karain jo gunah ke jawab main gunah aur jhoot ke jawab main bedtameezi ho jaye …

    hope you will understand what i am saying
    May ALLAh bless you in both worlds …

    take care

  21. Azizi says:

    Excellent article Ali. In addition to the material discussed in this article I have also been looking for stuff as to how the developed world got rid of petty corruption. Any pointers to such material will be welcomed.

    No one will ever be able to purge big corruption (as the big corruption continuously morphs itself into more sophisticated forms) but the petty corruption by people with meager authority victimizing even poorer than themselves impedes economic uplift, amplifies moral hazard and erodes patriotism at grass root level. A stopping of rickshaw driver by a foot constable for no reason, rigging of marriage license by a moulvi, adulteration by milkman and bribery for accepting a small application by a government clerk are just a few examples of such corruptions.

  22. ConcernedAmericanPak says:

    Why Does Corruption Persist in Democracies? is one of the most oxymoronic title given to an assay. Why does sun shines in Africa? Calling Pakistani Family and ethnic controlled fake elections democracy is a joke by itself. Please read this about the oldest democracy in the world(two party dictatorship), the USA and the role of the money in the mass killings, war crimes, illegal wars, unjust wars and wars, period.

    The U.S. War Addiction:
    Funding Enemies to Maintain Trillion Dollar Racket

    By David DeGraw

    June 19, 2010 ” “AlterNet” — A few recent news items help expose the true drivers of current wars around the world.
    #1) Wherever there is a war, look for CIA/IMF/private military war profiteers covertly funding and supporting BOTH sides in order to keep the wars raging and the profits rolling in. As former CIA Station Chief John Stockwell explained: “Enemies are necessary for the wheels of the US military machine to turn.”

    Here’s an important glimpse of truth to seep through last week in the NY Times, via Raw Story:

    US-backed ‘bribes’ in Afghanistan may be funding Taliban

    On June 7, the day Afghanistan became America’s longest-ever war, the New York Times reported on an ongoing investigation poised to prove that private security companies “are using American money to bribe the Taliban” to fuel combat and thus enhance demand for their services. The news follows a “series of events last month that suggested all-out collusion with the insurgents,” the Times said.

    “The American people are paying to prop up a corrupt government that may be using our money to pay private companies to drum up business by paying the insurgents to attack our troops,” [Kucinich] said…. The Times interviewed a NATO official in Kabul who “believed millions of dollars were making their way to the Taliban.” [read more]

    #2) On top of that report, Sunday’s headlines read, “Pakistani spy agency supports Taliban:”

    Pakistan’s main spy agency continues to arm and train the Taliban and is even represented on the group’s leadership council despite U.S. pressure to sever ties and billions in aid to combat the militants, said a research report released Sunday.

    The findings could heighten tension between the two countries and raise further questions about U.S. success in Afghanistan since Pakistani cooperation is seen as key to defeating the Taliban, which seized power in Kabul in the 1990s with Islamabad’s support.

    U.S. officials have suggested in the past that current or former members of Pakistan’s powerful Inter-Services Intelligence agency, or ISI, have maintained links to the Taliban despite the government’s decision to denounce the group in 2001 under U.S. pressure. [read more]

    First off, these two reports are really not news at all. Reports of American tax dollars ending up in the hands of the Taliban have been coming out since the start of the war and the ISI, as the CIA has been well aware of for years now, has been playing both sides of this war and is pivotal in keeping the war going. Secondly, I have long wondered when the CIA / US military would start exposing all of this in the mainstream propaganda press as a pretext to further expand the war into Pakistan.

    #3) As a result of all this, and not surprising at all to people who were paying close attention to Obama’s surge strategy, costs and death counts are quickly rising. Jim Lobe reports from Afghanistan that the “News is Bad.”

    While U.S. officials insist they are making progress in reversing the momentum built up by the Taliban insurgency over the last several years, the latest news from Afghanistan suggests the opposite may be closer to the truth.

    Even senior military officials are conceding privately that their much-touted new counterinsurgency strategy of “clear, hold and build” in contested areas of the Pashtun southern and eastern parts of the country are not working out as planned despite the “surge” of some 20,000 additional U.S. troops over the past six months.

    Casualties among the nearly 130,000 U.S. and other NATO troops now deployed in Afghanistan are also mounting quickly. [read more]

    #4) In a propaganda effort to spin away from all the latest bad news, the desperate US military has pulled this dusty old news report out of their back-pocket and launched a psychological operation in the NY Times to give a positive spin in hopes of further manipulating US public opinion:

    U.S. Identifies Vast Riches of Minerals in Afghanistan

    The United States has discovered nearly $1 trillion in untapped mineral deposits in Afghanistan, far beyond any previously known reserves…. The previously unknown deposits — including huge veins of iron, copper, cobalt, gold and critical industrial metals like lithium — are so big and include so many minerals that are essential to modern industry that Afghanistan could eventually be transformed into one of the most important mining centers in the world, the United States officials believe.

    An internal Pentagon memo, for example, states that Afghanistan could become the “Saudi Arabia of lithium,” a key raw material in the manufacture of batteries for laptops and BlackBerrys. [read more]

    In the process of this latest propaganda campaign, the Pentagon has unwittingly exposed two things that I will now jump on. A) The real reason why we are in this war to begin with: it’s all about natural resources. And B) All the BS statements about these “previously unknown deposits” clearly prove, yet again, that the NY Times is only too happy to play the role of a straight-up propaganda paper. For those of us paying attention, we’ve been reading reports about these minerals for the past decade! Roland Sheppard just sent this along:

    “The New York Times, when it was beating the drums of war in 2002, failed to mention that the USGS published a report, at that time, Mines and Mineral Occurrences of Afghanistan Compiled by G.J. Orris and J.D. Bliss. Open-File Report 02-110. On page 16, they list as ‘Significant Minerals or Materials’ magnetite, hematite, chalcopyrite, covellite, chalcocite, cuprite, malachite, azurite, molybdenite, and native gold – lithium is mentioned on page 10 under ‘References.’”

    So, from the very beginning, as I went into further detail in the past, the war in Afghanistan is all about resources. I’ll get back to the “Saudi Arabia of lithium” in a minute, here’s a brief excerpt from my prior report on another key resource in the region:

    ORIGINS OF THE AFGHANISTAN OCCUPATION: “STRATEGY OF THE SILK ROUTE”

    Up until 9/11, oil companies, with the help of the Bush administration, were desperately trying to work out a deal with the Taliban to build an oil pipeline through Afghanistan. One of the world’s richest oil fields is on the eastern shore of the Caspian sea just north of Afghanistan. The Caspian oil reserves are of top strategic importance in the quest to control the earth’s remaining oil supply. The US government developed a policy called “The Strategy of the Silk Route.”

    The policy was designed to lock out Russia, China and Iran from the oil in this region. This called for U.S. corporations to construct an oil pipeline running through Afghanistan. Since the mid 1990s, a consortium of U.S. companies led by Unocal have been pursing this goal. A feasibility study of the Central Asian pipeline project was performed by Enron. Their study concluded that as long as the country was split among fighting warlords the pipeline could not be built. Stability was necessary for the $4.5 billion project and the U.S. believed that the Taliban would impose the necessary order. The U.S. State Department and Pakistan’s ISI, impressed by the Taliban movement to cut a pipeline deal, agreed to funnel arms and funding to the Taliban in their war for control of Afghanistan. [read more]

    Then of course we have the war in Iraq, again from my previous report:

    http://www.alternet.org/story/147217/
    “Come you masters of war…
    You that hide behind desks
    I just want you to know,
    I can see through your mask…”

  23. Azizi says:

    This article does not cover another form of corruption, though common in the developing countries but no one can match the “sanctity” of corruption at the higher echelons of Pak Fouj. That is why it should have its own name and nick. No one in media can talk about it, except becoming a missing person no bloody civilian can dare to question it and no lawyer can find a code to prosecute it in the court of law. The civilians who have worked with Jurnails describe the size of sleaze so big that no one can imagine. The amount of Pakistani defense budget with respect to rest of the economy and the fact that no general has ever gone to jail are only a few indicators.

    How would you feel about corruption in Pakistan after reading the following?

    The biggest-prolonged corruption among the developing countries has been in India. Largest amount of black money ($1.4 trillions; though questionable but not unplausible ) in the Swiss banks owned by Indians would a good starting point.

    The largest corporate corruption (apart from war industry crimes in Iraq and Afghanistan) occurred in the USA where US bankers got away with the largest corruption in history; A 160 billion Dollar bailout of Savings and Loans Thrifts (Cooperative Bank) bailout in 1989 followed by a 1 trillion Dollar Sub-Prime bailout of 2008-9. Look for the next one in 2028 or even earlier and bigger.

    The biggest White corruption occurs in the Health Care Industry of USA where the doctors lobby (who also act as the agents and conduits to Pharmaceutical and Insurance industry) suck up $8000 yearly from every Tom, Dick and Harry whether he gets sick or not. Way more than the yearly food cost of an upper class Joe. Such an enormous and mandatory expenditure on health care , yearly $2.5 trillion, induces extra ordinary pressure on other countries’ health care cost as the doctors in other countries become envy of their counter part in the Land of the Frees. A good candidate to bankrupt Americans and America.

    The weirdest culturally acceptable corruption occurs in China where the culprit (usually a government official) who even gets caught and executed, feels proud that he has safely sent his children out of the country with all the loot, and his scion will live in prosperity after his death.

  24. Zardari Fan says:

    I have read few comments about the Birthday Parties of Benazir. Some people called her BB NRO Waali, this is true she made this biggest blunder of her life, but in return she brought back democracy to Pakistan.

    Just look around today, thousands and thousands of people are enjoying big cakes, mithai, biryani…….there is no ‘mahanghai’ in Pakistan, otherwise where all these cakes and parties are coming from. Look the entire cabinet including Fahmida Mirza and Jamshed Dusti is in Naudero, PM came in his own plane to Naudero, what is this fuss all about…. there are plenty of cakes to go around.
    Every one is happy under Zardari, and if you read comments here 90% of them supports BB and Zardari.

  25. Masood Ahmad says:

    @Zardari Fan

    The so called return to democracy was offered by Musharraf to sharif brothers, in return for accepting him as a ‘legal’ president. When it didn’t come true, only then he turned towards Benazir.

    So your over-simpliciy isn’t really well worth considering. People also say Q leage was a democractic government, and it was denial of ppp from resigning, which made Musharraf as our president.

    So perhaps you can shut your philosophical speech ?

    It’s a bloody game of power, and that’s it. Come benazir or nawaz sharif, very little difference.

  26. rahmed says:

    Everyone is corrupt in this own domain. Even watching this copyrighted program is corruption. We people based upon our own convineance define corrption. We teach our kids to make more money to keep ahead in competition.
    These rulers truly reflect the face of our society as they have been elected by people of Pakistan. We as a nation are responsible for this debacle as we have a tunnel vision. We always tried to promote a culture of favortism as we always support our kids, relatives even if they are not eligible for something.
    We dont have a culture of self accountability and as a result we always look forward to find other’s mistake.
    Having said all that , no doubt, these rulers are worst rulers in the history of mankind but they have been elected recently by the people of Pakistan in supplementry election. The problem is only 3 billion people have participitated in elections and they have elected these chors

  27. mir munsif says:

    Mujtaba

    Bro,I have read your comments and I do agree you that our objective is welfare democratic state and we should not be die hard lovers/haters of any personality and party.But having said that I am die hard lovers of DEMOCRACY.Politicians could all be worst but again there is NO moral,constitutional or what ever right to our MILITARY to intervene and over throw democratic system and Judiciary legitimize every such quo.

    Democracy is continuous system and its needs continuity to refine and filter out the bad and encourage the Pro people politics.Parties cant make mistakes and even repeat but I am sure the future of this federation and country highly depends upon DEMOCRACY alone.

    The power of vote is the way to wash out the dirt in political systems and develop a pro people government,this may take time but we should not be so hasty to demand results in few years of 62 years mess.
    Dictators come and govern over decades but neither Media,Judiciary and Mulla class get against it for 80 percent of time.How many Democratic govt have completed their tenure???Each dictator doubled the period..10 years..!!

    Dictatorship and theocracy are menace to development of society in our country.Let the democracy flourish and

  28. ConcernedAmericanPak says:

    @rahmed

    The problem is only 3 billion people have participitated in elections and they have elected these chors..

    My dear, I am shocked that half the world has taken part in the Pakistani election, 3 Billion and majority voted for the BB Saheeeeeda’y NRO, Corruption, money laundering, mother of Taliban’s, daughter of Neo-Satans of America, wife of the world’s number one fraud and thief, and mother of Bilawal Zardari“Bhutto a shameless young man living like a king in waiting, a metro sexual moron son living like a rock star on the looted monies from the poorest of the poor of Pakistan, murder plots, deceit, self exile from the crimes and fake Muslim woman. What a legacy by “Pinky” Bhutto. According to you, she was and still is(to the grave worshipping loons) a world class crook.

  29. mir munsif says:

    @ConcernedAmericanPak

    Bro,Instead of discussing issues and coming up with healthy criticism,the only thing one can learn from your write ups is sheer hate and abusive language.Do criticize,there is no harm but always using dirty language will not give a better example and understanding to readers rather it unlocks the state of ur own “Enlightened healthy western” mind.

  30. norozkhan says:

    Corruption will be totally eliminated if we have a true democracy. Corruption will exist or even flourish if we have Pakistani style democracy where Politics has become hereditary and it is occupied by few families. Our people are so brainless that they keep electing proven corrupt politicians. Recently passed law confirmed that after Zardari it will be his son taking over PPP and Nawaz Sharif or Shahbaz Sharif will be treplaced by their sons.

    It is nonsense to say that corruption persists in Democracies, countries like UK, US, and Canada with true Democracy have least corruption. Very recently a previous Prime Minister of Canada Brian Mulroney was convicted of receiving two Hundred Thousand Dollars for lobbying an arms supplier when he was in power. It happened because no one in the country is above the law and everyone is held responsible for his or her crime.

  31. irshad khan says:

    There is one prime example of promoting corruption in Pakistan; it is in the news that Babar Awan is giving out 42 Crores of Rupees to bar associations in Pakistan. I have no doubt that this is a bribe from the Government to get Lawyers on their side. I wonder who allowed Government to pay out such a huge amount to Law Societies while their famous Lawyers are earning in Crores defending criminals.
    Who will be the next party or association the rulers are going to buy, why Parliament or the Judges are not raising any questions.

  32. zalemay says:

    Giulty

    کتے دے پتر – انسانوں والی بات کر – آئے گئے کی اولاد – تمہارے پاس تو اپنی آئی دی تم گلتی اور باوا کی آئی دی لئے پھر رہے ہو – پہلے اپنے باپ کو تو ڈھونڈو پھر آکر کوئی بات کرو. لوگ کہتے ہیں تمہاری من کی منجی چوک میں تھی. میرا گیس ہے کہ تمہاری ماں کی منجی اس ہوٹل کے باہر تھی یہاں پٹھان ٹرک ڈرائیور کھانا کھانے کے لئے ٹھہرتے ہیں. جبھی تو تم اپنے آپ کو اصلی پٹھان کہتے ہو

  33. behnoi says:

    @ Giulty
    bhai tum kahan ho tumhari bahen ne mujhay teng kiia huaa hai
    wapes aa jao yaar tumharay 4 5 bawa ji tumhian dhoondh rahay hain tumharay baki bapon ko bhii itelaa de di hai … woh bhi preshan hain …
    gali ka kala kutta debbu jisay tum abbu kehtay thay woh bhi bhonk raha hai ….

    faqat tumhara behnoi

  34. zalemay says:

    Giulty

    نقلی گلٹی لو تمہاری بہن کا خاوند بھی آگیا ہے. وہ بھی پوچھ رہا ہے کہ تمھارا باپ کون ہے؟ وہ بھی ابھی تک تمہارے باپ کو نہیں ڈھونڈ سکا ہے. بیچارہ سارا دن ہوٹل کے باہر بیٹھا ہر پٹھان ٹرک ڈرائیور سے تہمارے اور تمہاری ماں کے بارے میں پوچھتا ہے

  35. پاور پلانٹ کی تنصیب، لا منسٹری نے وزارت بجلی میں سنگین مالی بے ضابطگیوں کا پتہ لگالیا

    اسلام آباد(رپورٹ …رؤف کلاسرا) وزارت قانون نے گجرانوالہ میں پاور پلانٹ کیلئے4 غیرملکی بینکوں سے329 ملین ڈالر کا قرض لینے کے معاملے میں دال میں کچھ کالا محسوس کیا ہے، یہ پروجیکٹ راجہ پرویز اشرف کی وزارت پانی و بجلی کا ہے جو کہ پہلے ہی بدعنوانی میں لتھڑی ہوئی ہے، وزارت قانون نے اس سلسلے میں ہونے والی بڑے پیمانے پر بے ضابطگیوں کی طویل کہانی کوکور دینے سے انکار کر دیا ہے اور اب یہ معاملہ اب وزیر اعظم کی میز پر پہنچ چکا ہے۔

    http://jang.net/urdu/details.asp?nid=443868

    ————————————————————————————

    عراق: وعدہ پورا نہ کرنے پر وزیر مستعفی
    بصرہ: پاکستان میں لوڈ شیڈنگ ختم کرنے کے حکومتی وعدے تو وفا نہ ہوئے مگر عراقی وزیر نے بجلی کی قلت پر قابو پانے کا وعدہ پورا نہ کرنے پر استعفیٰ دے دیا۔عراق کے وزیر بجلی کریم وحید مْلک میں بجلی کی قلت پر قابو پانے کا وعدہ پورا نہ کرسکنے پر مستعفی ہوگئے۔ کریم وحید نے وزات سنبھالنے کے بعد ٹی وی پر قوم سے خطاب میں بجلی کی قلت کا مسئلہ حل کرنے کا وعدہ کیا تھا۔

    عراق کے مختلف علاقوں میں لوڈ شیڈنگ کے خلاف تین روز سے شدید احتجاج کا سلسلہ جاری تھا۔ہفتے کے روز بصرہ میں لوڈ شیڈنگ کے خلاف مظاہرے پرپولیس کی فائرنگ سے دو افراد ہلاک ہوگئے تھے۔

    ایک طرف پاکستان کے بجلی کے چور اور دوسری طرف عراق کے بجلی کے وزیر . یہ وہی عراق ہے جہاں تیل کے بدلے خوراک میں بھی کسی نے برا ہاتھ مارا تھا

  36. mohtashim says:

    @ Shakeel Bajwa..where you accompanying Zardari when he had dinner with Altaf Hussain and Musharaf? How was the dinner and what did they have for dinner..seekh kebab..yum? Comon, comment on the article rather than making assertions which none of us really know about..

    With respect to the commentary above Just a general observation I have had is that Pakistan and Pakistanis which includes all of us is that we forget the bitter memories of the past..the baton charges…tear gas, sticks in jail and whipping by hunters experienced during the tyrannical regimes of Ayub, Yayha, Zia and Musharraf. We suffered dictatorship for more than 37 years in our 62 year history and we do not blame that for our problems. The methods of these dictators are never spoken of and their corruption never talked about. Will the commentators here mind explaining where Goher Ayub got his millions, what Bilal Musharaf is doing in Boston and howcome Ijaz ul Haq has so much money (what happened to the cement bought for Faisal mosque?), were General Habibullah and Sons born billionaires to set-up Ghandhara industries and how come General Akita Abdul Rahman and his sons afforded to build a 20 Kanal home in Model Town….Think about it logically without emotion and political motive..these Generals could manipulate the judiciary (except principled people like Justice Safdar Shah) to hang Bhutto and they couldn’t convict Zardari for his alleged corruption during 11 years of prosecution and incarceration. is it his fault he is free??????

    It seems the methods of dictators are well liked because they kept us in check…we being a disorganized and emotional nation tend not to enjoy freedom or democracy because as soon as we get we fall into the plans hatched by the powers to be to derail these (in other words the Establishment) I see whats coming to Nawaz Sharif when he takes over as the PM in the next couple of years. Believe me the same arguments will be used to shorten his time in government. In short Pakistan ka hazma kharab hai…we cannot digest democracy.

    For your kind information it was due to Benazir Bhutto’s valiant efforts that Musharraf shed his so called skin..and it was her blood that led to relatively fair elections a new democratic dispensation in Pakistan. NRO was a way for her to enter the country safely….in my personal opinion I do not believe she would have used it for permanent relief as she was a shrewd politician…The same deal method was applied by Nawaz Sharif to save himself from hanging.. No doubt later on Nawaz Sharif being far more clever than Zardari and decided to take the judicial route instead of the one adopted by Zardari (because of Zardari’s obvious and public distrust of a judiciary which imprisoned him without a guilty verdict for 11 years). For this the public and the courts respect and love Nawaz Sharif …and rightly soo. Nonetheless having a democratic dispensation has benefited Pakistan in so many ways…the national finance commission award which could not be achieved by dictators, devolution of powers to the provinces which Musharraf ditched, removal of anti-democracy clauses in the constitution and number of other reforms, finally we have a labor policy which sets the ground for minimum wage law and ensuring liquidity goes to the banking sector in the form of salary transactions to employee bank accounts like other developed nations. Some work on an energy policy…None of these things were possible under the Musharaf regime..or any Military..Dictatorships gave us an uneven relationship with the US which is now costing us in the form of innocent lives, angry neighbors and internal chaos..thats it!!!!

    I am also fully cognizant of the fact that there are economic, power and security issues in Pakistan which frustrate us all..but can anyone let me know when we didn’t have these issues…Indeed there has been an escalation in these problems following 8 years of dictatorship which led to poor policy and decision making….the last 2 of which were in total chaos with the state machinery only focused on quelling political unrest and the lawyers movement. What did the country expect? For everything to run normally when the whole country was rioting and virtually shut-down..I am not saying it was for a bad cause but civil unrest has its after affects…And to be honest causing further instability will make our problems worse.

    What we need right now is stability so the government can do whatever little it can to provide relief to the nation and if it fails we will have a chance to boot them out provided we allow free and fair elections…Zardari has given away his powers..he is a figure head president and a democratically elected one. The public generally has a good opinion of the Head of Government PM Gillani..there is a vibrant, vocal and relevant opposition which is powerful and brings about policy change when needed e.g. restoration of judges…everything is going in the right direction as far as political and democratic Pakistan is concerned..our long term issues will be solved INSHALLAH if we continue the system and have free and fair elections at the end of this governments term..If Imran Khan, Qazi Hussain Ahmed, Hezb-e-Tehreer, Ansar Abbasi, Shaheen Sehbai and Shahid Masood have a popular mandate the public will elect/listen to them if not I expect Nawaz Sharif to win the elections paving the way for a truly 2 national party system as in other established democracies such as the UK, US, France and India supported by a number of nationalists and religious groups…The Sanctity and Success of Pakistan depend on this and ensuring this government succeeds and completes it term…Backdoor and negative politics and military intervention will ruin it…Corruption will prevail and remain strong in Pakistan for a long time and requires a change in mind-set..Remember Nawab the Pion standing outside ADC Islamabad’s office charging rs.50 for entry into the ADC office to hear traffic chalan hearings and superdari took Rs.50 in Musharraf time and took Rs.50 (maybe adjustment for inflation) on February 18th when the PPP government took charge…Remember whilst the the allegations of corruption against zardari amount to $1bn (according to different sources) the actual governmental charges account for no more than $60mn..a quick scan of newspaper articles discussing Swiss accounts will form this…getting $60mn is not going to feed 170mn empty stomachs…and neither is the pursuit of this $60mn in the best benefit of Pakistan considering the instability and uncertainty it is causing Pakistan especially at a time when we have so many internal and external enemies conspiring to break Pakistan.

    So please my appeal to all of you is..spend your time and your comments on presenting positive views..the article is fabulous and presents a number of valid
    arguments…keep your discussion focused on this and what we can learn from the findings presented in the case of Pakistan..Long live Pakistan and Pakistanis…As I have said in an earlier post…that our comments might not have an immediate impact but I am sure policy makers are reading what we are saying..if we can collectively develop a consensus on a way forward and present our ideas on forums such as this .. we can enact mass change…and hopefully develop a stigma around corruption…fear of prosecution is not going to quell or reduce corruption if it did then China would not have it…Developing a social stigma and positive educational campaign on this social evil will change our mindset…and force our leaders to mend their ways…

  37. Zaheer says:

    Very lengthy and heavy article and nice discussion :) My opinion

    – Democracy itself is a very debatable and diverse concept and system. Different countries are having its different forms and levels. Corruption is part of life we can not fully eliminate it but can minimize it! I think there is no country having a perfect system and neither there is possibility of having one since human beings are also not perfect. This, however, does not mean that we should not try to find a good way of governance!

    – I think it is one of our biggest problems that we want to bring an external system in our land blindly without enough knowing that system and also our own history, culture, ground realities and problems. We have already messed up with Islam as we tried to impose/bring the golden/highest level of Islam without even knowing spirit of Islam, ignoring its gradual development process and our own ground realities i.e. time and space realities. Islam itself defines that it should be brought into life gradually,as Prophet Muhammad(SAW) did, but we tried to either bring it suddenly/rapidly or sometimes just ignored it totally and result is so many divisions, sects, groups and internal fights which we observe today.

    – In case of Democracy we also need to bear in mind that we have different history, nature, culture, traditions, psychology, priorities, geography etc than West! So efforts to impose a Western model of Democracy in Pakistan has not been effective and i feel that it has resulted in unnecessary divisions of our society into different groups on political basis as happened in case of religion. It is good to have democratic system but before that we need to understand what form of it could be feasible for our country!

    – In reality, Islam and Democracy are quite compatible except few differences and one major difference is that in Democracy people or their elected representatives are considered to be the highest authority while in Islam highest authority lies with Allah(SWT) and people and their representatives work as vicegerents of Allah who have been trusted with partial authority from HIM and are answerable to Him at the End! One the other hand Democracy generally denies absolute authority of God and accountability in front of Him. Other major difference is that in Islam rules of life/governance have been defined by Allah(SWT) and followers have to interpret them and implement while in Democracy these rules are generally defined by the people/representatives.

    – I feel that we really need to know our current ground realities, time and space conditions and then decide about having an appropriate system of governance than being blind followers and disturbing everything!

  38. mir munsif says:

    PMLN other side:

    A party flourished by a General and supporting right wing of extremists can never be a democratic party. PML-N is quick enough to point finger at other character but never intended to look into its own mirror. Mian Sahib looted this country with both the hands but he is quite vigilant to declare others as looters, dacoits an thieves.

    His assets include –
    1: Ittifaq Taxtile, 2: Merhran Ramzan Taxtile.3: Brothers Taxtile Mills’ 4: Ramzan Baksh Taxtile Mills’ 5: Hamza Spinning Mills’ 6: Ittifaq Sugar Mills; 7: Muhammad Baksh Taxtile Mills, 8: Ramzan Sugar Mills, 9: Chaudhry Sugar Mills, 10: Ittifaq Foundries 11: Brothers steel Mills,12: Ittifaq Bros Industries,13: Illiyas Enterprises, 14: Hudaibia Paper Mills,15: Hudaibia Engineering, 16: Khalid Siraj Industries, 17: Hamza Board Mills, 18: Farooq Barkat Lts., 19: Ali Haroon Taxtile Mills, 20: Hanif Siraaj Taxtile Mills,21: Model Trading House Ltd., 22: Abdul Aziz taxtile Mills, 23: Saandal Bar Taxtile mills 24: Habib Waqas Rice Mills, 25: Sardar Board & Paper Mills and 26: Barkat Taxtile Mills.But he is poor fellow and pays only 5000 rupees tax and he is even in debit because he has got some loan from own family members…How poor he is??

    These were the ‘known’ industries of Sharifs at that time, on which there was Pakistani banks loans already taken, while there were huge Tax payment irregularities as well. They not only built an industrial empire for Ittifaq group only, but also helped grow some other business empires too (like Mian Mansha Group) to become Multi-Multi-billionaire from billionaire within years, so that unanimous help and influence of such ‘non-state-non-political’ actors may be available to them all the time . Nawaz Sharif is also very well known to introduce the concept of ‘political bribery’ in Pakistan. He distributed 1000s of plots all over Pakistan in return or in hope of Political favors that he and his party needed. Moreover he is also said to have distributed billions of rupees within political leaders to maintain his ill political practices and regime.

    Moreover, Sharif family’s involvement in money laundering is immense. They are said to have laundered billions of dollars out of Pakistan during their tenures, especially the last one… The list of corruption is long and astonishing. Even if we neglect more than 30 industries within country that Sharifs own, their corruption is still in Billions of dollars!!

  39. ZEE says:

    @mir munsif

    you are so ignorant

    dont you know sharif family was even that much rich in seventies

    when your poor farmer(by occupation) leader was nationalising their ittefaq foundaries

    they all brothers are businessmen and running the business from the very beginning

    its not like surrey palace which they ever tried to hide

    improve your knowledge

  40. Zaheer says:

    @mir munsif & ZEE

    This artificial fight is going on since decades! :) First they do corruption, then they take turns of power, then they blame each other, then they shake hands with each other, then again they do corruption, then turn of power, then again blame each other and so on…

    How thieves/corrupts can do justice and find criminals? Who is paying for this American wrestling(i.e. only show but inside one)? These are the poor and helpless people of Pakistan. Bass karoo ab, bahut ho gia! Khuda ka khauf khao kuch.

  41. ajnabi larki from canada says:

    i m sure no one knows the back ground of this writer ?
    i wish if he tell us bit about his families business and back ground.
    the problem of this nation is very simple, land lords are solving the problems of beggars.

  42. mir munsif says:

    Zaheer

    Bro,I agree you that politicians are no more angels but and above post,I tried to show other side of PMLN because in this mess,its not any single party but huge chunk of politicians are involved but the biggest curse and Establishment factor is CREATION of Military Establishment and their puppet politicians and Media partners.

    Dictators and Theocracy are real menace to the development our society.

  43. mir munsif says:

    Zaheer

    Correction:but the biggest curse and destabilizing factor to our society come from Military Establishment and their puppet politicians and Media partners.

    Dictators and Theocracy are real menace to the development our society.

  44. mir munsif says:

    Zee

    Bro u said “dont you know sharif family was even that much rich in seventies”.

    Ans:He is still poor man,Its not me but his TAX statment of 5000 rupees tell us how poor he is and he is even in debts because he have got loans from his son and wife .. :)

    when your poor farmer(by occupation) leader was nationalising their ittefaq foundaries.

    Pakistan is land of farmers and workers,we are agriculture based country and if any leader is farmer,that is sense of pride, in spite of all prejudice,ever one respect 73 constitution+Atomic Bomb+kamrah n waha Industries+Islamic bank and OIC+steel mill+90 thousand army men freed from India without giving them any favour..what else u want man from this farmer and even he didnt leave country rather died in gallows of dictator and made history.While ur leader ran away in two days due to mosquito bites ..

    they all brothers are businessmen and running the business from the very beginning.
    Hudeeba paper mills scandle and Biggest Money laundering scandle of country’s history go to these brothers.

  45. ZEE says:

    @mir munsif

    I am sure whatever you are writing you also know its false

    many times NS has said he has transferred his property to his family members b/c in mush’s period all his property including model town house was occupied by that regime

    so his family members are paying tax,you dont worry,b/c now they are owners of the property

    he has only done this to avoid if it happens again in the future b/c he knows ppp will again be siding with the new dictator

    and to be a farmer is not bad but being a farmer keeping others deprived of even of the basic necessties and to make them fools is bad

    and all the things you mentioned about bhutto’s “achievements” are nothing

    b/c he was the person who broke the pakistan

    73 constituition was formed by the help of all the parties not only by ppp

    dont mention about Islamic summit

    they had done nothing,they all are still puppets and impotents as they were at that time

    atomic bomb was the need of the time b/c India tested it in 1974

    so half-pakistan had no other option other than to have it

    even I believe it could not be solely bhutto’s decision,army would be the main factor

    if it were solely bhutto’s decision BN would not have tried to roll it back

    afterall pinki was his beloved daughter

    dont mention about ordnance factories,they are being built since 1947 and still being progressed

    and it is not “ehsan” of any ruler for his country

    and all these things done by bhutto after 1971’s shameful defeat,when your 90,000 soldiers were detained bu India,was like
    “khasiani billi khumba nochay”
    or like a “bandar ki aanian jaanian”

    and you dont feel shame when you mention about pakistan steel mill,first BN looted it now AZ is looting it

    and I have already said God’s “rope” is there no one will be spared

    but you please stop lying

    it won’t help

    BN tried to be oversmart and tried to cheat NS and make deals with mush but got nothing

    so as I said,you already know all these things but you cant refrain yourself from basless comments

  46. Zaheer says:

    @ZEE

    “no lectures please”
    I can say same about your comments dear! can’t i?

    “courts are free”
    I don’t know how much are they free? by saying courts are free does not make them free and regularly come comments of judges that their orders are not being followed!

    “even if they escaped from there

    God’s “rope” is there”

    Of course ultimate judgment will be done in the court of Allah! This, however, does not mean that we just close our eyes and stay silence upon whatever they do. People are also obliged to stop corruption/wrongdoings in this world too as much as they can!

    “so you dont worry”

    It is not your business to tell me if i worry or not! I am a free person and so are you! I will comment if i want to and so can you or anyone else!

    “and no lectures”
    Depends!!!

  47. Zaheer says:

    @mir munsif

    “Bro,I agree you that politicians are no more angels but and above post,I tried to show other side of PMLN because in this mess,its not any single party but huge chunk of politicians are involved but the biggest curse and Establishment factor is CREATION of Military Establishment and their puppet politicians and Media partners.”

    It is true that establishment has been part of problems but all can’t be put on them and these things can’t be used as excuse to continue corruption! Corruption or mistake of one person can’t used as ground to do more corruption otherwise there will be no end. I think it is also not wise to blame establishment for all problems, it is hard to draw a line that who did what.

    Problems we are facing today are not due to any single person or institution rather they are because of many groups and factors.

  48. wbuttar says:

    We only hope a soft revolution under the leadership of sincere leader like Imran Khan otherwise surely we are heading towards a leaderless and bloody revolution. Now Nawaz Shareef also predicting a revolution and strangely he is portraying himself as the leader of that revolution. I want to quote a story here:

    “Once corrupt and cruel King was reigning a country. Common people were fed up withe the brutalities and injustices of the King and rulling elite. The people decides to confront and started agitating, a civil war errupted , the country was heading towards a revolution. The Advisors of the King alarmed the king of possible massacre of rulling elite alongwith King. The King was very calmed and composed. One day Advisors informed him about a mob approaching the palace and chanting slogans for “Inqilab” and against “King”. The King was still composed, suddenly he left his seat and appear on the terrace to view the scene. He asked the mob of their demands. The mob respond, we want revolution and get rid of rulling elite.

    The King agreed to their demand and started chanting slogans for “Inqilab” zindabad, and offer them to lead the “Inqilab”, the crowd also follows.”

    The above story is for our current rulling elite including Nawaz Shareef. Who are surely part of the problem but offering to lead a revolution. What a joke.

    Qatil hi Maseeha banne ko tayyar ho rahe hain.

  49. ammarisb says:

    Corruption exists in all systems of governance and democracy is no exception. The recent transperancy international report highlights the disturbing raise in corruption. Unless we ensure transparency in public funds neither the donors nor the investors will be interested in starting reforms in Pakistan

  50. sipahi says:

    The author forgot to discuss the most basic question.
    “What is the underlying purpose of a government?”
    After purpose of the government is well understood, then only one can discuss merits/demerits of democracy and other forms of government.

  51. amnazaman says:

    Rightly mentioned by the author, corruption and terrorism are two things that will never let Pakistan succeed. True democracy is only successful without corruption or least corruption. We need to eradicate these elements from our society.

  52. waqarullah says:

    If we always go for the short term solutions then we r going to end up in the same pit ,
    ill say education is the long term solution for all this crap that we r going thru.
    dictators or so-called elected government they dont do any thing to improve the quality of education in urban or rural, its only for the rich.
    AS “AN EDUCATED MAN WOULD NEVER ELECT PUPPETS LIKE THESE! “

  53. Jutt kharak says:

    Problem is in the heading of your so called ‘thesis ‘
    I am pretty sure you can’t see it
    ‘Countries’ not Democracies
    and then you spend an entir evening badmouthing democracy
    you are a typical 3rd world intellectual who arrived at Cambridge or what was it oxford? you are LATE
    My man you are the reason why we have not been able to develop as a nation or even as a society capable of producing genuine thinkers.

  54. bublibangash says:

    A very good Article with a realistic approach towards the subject matter.

    In my opinion, if we have a glance at the relatively less corrupt states of the world, it is evident that corruption Is linked simultaneously with two factors, the first is the economic conditions, as such to help out the layman in living a decent life and the second, check and balance from the state government (not necessarily democracy). we have the example of western developed countries where the causes for low corruption are the high living standards plus the strict regulations of the state governance which make sure the accountability of the corrupt… on the other hand we have the model of rich Arab countries,,,,, citizens have the enough money and facilities to live out their lives without the corruption and their the government, even not democratic but still discourage the corruption.
    In those countries, the corruption is socially perceived as bad,,, since they have little justification for the act and one have to answered and be punished for it inevitably……

    If we perceive the corruption in the context of country like Pakistan, socially it is somehow acceptable by the masses. The corruption have now become a part of our national culture and have penetrated from the top most executive position to the grass route level…….. One of the common excuses for its justification is that corruption is adopted as a means to bridge the gap between the income and expenses of a person.
    Now linking the corruption with the democracy and finding out the relation between the two…….… in our country, we have witnessed both the democracy and dictatorship…. Except using the term of accountability for the personal benefits and political victimization, no concrete steps have been taken by any government against the corruption… infact, the process of democratization itself involves a lot of corruption in the form of buying votes/ragging the elections……..
    But corruption has a direct relationship with the service delivery of the governance which in turn, affects the popularity of the particular governing party among the masses… Thus if the democracy continues to work, we can hopefully say that it might help out in eradicating or minimizing or at least lessening the corruption in the country….. the people have the power to change the government if it fails to cope with the issue of corruption, and the fear of political accountability might be most possibly force the politicians to make the corrupt accountable……

  55. jamkashif says:

    Reply amandamarion

    My dear with due respect i want to say “Jaise awam hote hai waisay un par Hukmran musalat kiye jaatay hain”

    who sacrifice for democracy Mr.Zardari sacrifice for democracy even he dont know the spelling of democracy..

    Answer
    Q:he spent 9 years in jail

    A:for his own acts not for democracy

    Q:he lost his wife
    A: unfortunately he is on the high rank of Pakistan why is unable to arrest the culprits he just know how to give Guard of Honors to Mushraff

    Q:his children lost their mother
    A: Many of children has lost their mothers during maternity issues, commit suicide just for the single loaf of bread and issues and who is responsible you think zardari children are sacred.

    Q:he lost his brother in law
    A:Peoples knows better who is involved in his brother in law killig.

    Q:his mother in law is in hospital
    A: who send her to hospital, he is hospital to protect democracy..

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