Category Archives: Featured Articles


10 awesome international borders

Over the last few years, we’ve seen an impressive collection of new websites, blogs and social media accounts dedicated to ‘travel porn’. They’re filled with big, sweeping images of fairytale lands and precarious precipices. Sometimes, like this incredible piece on architectural density in Hong Kong, they’ll depict urban decay or stifling poverty – always gilded by the photographer’s lens.

At Atlas & Boots, we want to strike the right balance between travel porn and more in-depth content; the type that provides some previously unknown knowledge or insight. As we take our first steps into the former, we hope we can provide a bit of the latter. Let’s kick things off with 10 awesome international borders from around the globe.

1. Bangladesh / India

(Image: Creative Commons)

If you saw that image of a shipping ship shipping shipping ships a few years ago, then perhaps you’ll be able to process this more easily: Dahala Khagrabari is an Indian enclave inside a Bangladeshi enclave inside an Indian enclave inside Bangladesh. At 7,000 square metres, it is the world’s only counter-counter enclave, which means if you drove straight through it you’d go through Bangladesh, India, Bangladesh, India, Bangladesh, India, Bangladesh. Legend has it that the enclaves are a result of a series of chess games between the Maharaja of Cooch Behar and the Faujdar of Rangpur who waged villages instead of currency. Academics say it’s the result of peace treaties in 1711 and 1713 between the kingdom of Cooch Behar and the Mughal empire. The poignant thing about the area is that the enclaves have been left in a state of near abandonment with little access to public services. Residents cannot leave because they do not have passports nor the means to get them, and the two governments have thus far opted to avoid tackling the logistical quagmire despite their vows to do so.

2. Haiti / Dominican Republic

(Image: NASA, Public Domain)

In colonial times, Haiti had a population seven times higher than its neighbour. Today, the two countries are more or less on par (10m in Haiti versus 9m in the Republic) but at half the size of its neighbour, Haiti has a far higher population density. This in combination with low rainfall and scant legislation led to rapid deforestation on the Haitian side. In spring last year, the Haitian government vowed to double the country’s forest cover by 2016, currently at a precarious 2%, one of the lowest rates in the world. Despite some scepticism, hopes are high that the campaign will turn the tide on centuries of degradation.

3. USA / Canada


(Image: Creative Commons)

The Haskell Free Library and Opera House lies in both Stanstead, Quebec (Canada) and Derby Line, Vermont (USA). A big black line slices it down the middle, marking one of the most unusual international borders between countries. Built in 1904, the library was deliberately constructed on the border by American sawmill owner Carlos Haskell and his Canadian wife Martha Stewart Haskell to ensure availability to customers of both nationalities. In total, there are three streets that cross the border. While security has been tightened post 9/11, residents can still cross international lines by visiting the library.
(Image: Francis Vachon)

4. Alaska / Russia


(Image: David Cohoe, Creative Commons)

Sarah Palin’s apocryphal quote (“I can see Russia from my house”) was most likely inspired by The Diomede Islands. What the hapless Republican actually said was: “They’re our next-door neighbors, and you can actually see Russia from … an island in Alaska.” Incidentally, she is right. The Diomede Islands – just 2.5 miles apart – are on either side of the USA-Russia border. The Big Diomede Island is a part of Russia while the little one is a part of the American state of Alaska. The most interesting part is that the border coincides with the International Date Line, so when Americans look across to the neighbouring island, they’re not only looking into another country, they’re looking into tomorrow. Despite the short distance, when it’s 9am on Saturday on Little Diomede, it’s 6am on Sunday on Big Diomede.

5. Ethiopia / Somaliland

5. Ethiopia-Somaliland

(Image: Makarand Sahasrabuddhe, used with permission)

This threadbare piece of rope marks the border between Ethiopia and Somaliland, an autonomous region of Somalia. The ramshackle barrier in the village of Wado Makhil has a rather laidback approach to customs, archetypal of several African border posts. Peter, who crossed the Tanzania-Kenya international borders in 2010, tells me he had a similar experience on his way back from Kili: “I arrived at a dusty outpost by coach and simply strolled into no man’s land between the two countries. I did buy a visa before entering Kenya and was amused to see that they had simply stamped it ‘Peter’ with no other details whatsoever.”

6. North Korea / South Korea

(Image: NASA, Public Domain)

This satellite image clearly shows the international borders between South Korea and its isolated neighbour. North Korea lies in darkness, its capital Pyongyang one of the few places with electricity. The lights at the top of the image depict cities in China while the bright line in the middle marks the DMZ (demilitarised zone). It’s said that night-time illumination is an indicator of economic prosperity. By that measure, North Koreans are living in practical poverty. After the Arab Spring, South Koreans reportedly sent balloons across the border informing their long-suffering neighbours of the protests. One hopes for a similar revolution but in one of the most militarised countries in the world, it’s most likely impossible.

7. Sweden / Norway

One of the few pairs in this list that actually like each other, Sweden and Norway share this stunning international border. With snow-capped trees on either side, the route stretches for over 1,000 miles, making it the longest border in either country. Photographer Havard Dalgrav posted the mage to Reddit in 2012 garnering over 1,000 comments. He says in the thread: “Funny part is that riding a snowmobile for fun is illegal in Norway, but legal in Sweden. So we are riding on a very thin line here, literally…”

8. Papua New Guinea / Indonesia

international-borders-Indonesia-Papua New Guinea

From afar, the Papua New Guinea-Indonesia seems striking in its simplicity: a straight line that runs directly from north to south. Look closer and you’ll notice what looks like a small bite mark taken out of Indonesia. That bite mark is a bend in the Fly River, which strays to the west before levelling out into a straight line once again. It’s said that the anomaly is a result of headhunting (and not of the LinkedIn variety). In 1893, the area was awash with actual, real headhunting. The British, who controlled the southeastern quarter, found it difficult to act due to the then ambiguous border. The problem was solved by a deal that moved the border to the east, allowing British powers to patrol much further without having to cross borders. The amendment is all the more remarkable as it has become the continental border between Asia and Oceania.

9. Mexico / USA

(Image: Tony Webster, Creative Commons)

The Mexico-USA border usually evokes images of desperate Mexicans clambering over a fence to start a better life in a prosperous country. What we picture less often is the gentle waters in which the border ends. This barrier, nestled between Imperial Beach in California and Tijuana Beach in Mexico, is designed to prevent would-be migrants from walking over to the US during low tide. It extends 90 metres into the Pacific Ocean and is occasionally used as a fence in friendly games of international beach volleyball.

10. Nepal / China

best national parks in the world nepal everest

This list wouldn’t be complete without a mention of Mount Everest. The Nepal-China international borders run all the way up this iconic mountain and across the precise summit point, making it the highest international border in the world. Everest can be climbed from both sides but is more frequently tackled from the Nepalese side which has better infrastructure and more experienced Sherpas to lend support to would-be summiteers.

(Additional photography: Dreamstime, Google Maps)


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Tweets of the Day

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Tweets of the Day for 20 June 2016

Current Affairs

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Tweets of the Day

Tweets of the Day

Tweets of the Day for 2 June 2016

Current Affairs

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Tweets of the Day

Tweets of the Day

Tweets of the Day for 18 May 2016

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Violence of the Lambs

Violence of the Lambs

by Waqar Ahmed
Follow me at twitter @TheAngryLawyer3

Imran’s mantra for last few years’ suites the following phrases to the T:

– If you can’t dazzle them with your brilliance then baffle them with your bullshit.
– If you cannot convince them, confuse them, once they are confused they will be violent.

This is not the first time that a political public gathering of Pakistan Tehreek Insaf (PTI) has witnessed violence at Chairing Cross Lahore on May 1, 2016. There have been similar and continuous episodes playing in every rally of PTI before. Just to refresh your memory a few incidents for examples:

1. We witnessed our violent lambs breaking the fast before time in an Iftari arranged by PTI and stole the chairs in Kasoor procession before general elections.

2. We saw the chaos and mayhem displayed by our lambs in the rally just before General Elections 2013 when they almost killed their own leader, out of sheer love, pushing him from the Lifter.

3. In 2014 during Imran’s Dharna Jaggernaut PTI folks cruised into women enclosure in Multan gathering , resulting into stampede that lead to loss of 14 innocent lives.

4. We have witnessed several violent incidents during 126 days long sit-in at Constitutional Avenue. One can’ forget their most peaceful attack at Pakistan Television Islamabad and National Assembly of Pakistan.

5. At the elected local body get together, representatives of PTI were seen playing Chair-Fight (forget about pillow fight its too old fashion) at Municipal Hall Peshawar during their oath taking ceremony.

6. Last week at PTI’s 20th Anniversary Celebrations at Islamabad they exhibited the worst behavior towards women folk and we are still hearing the countless stories of women molested by the patriot PTI supporters.

7. Despite the fact that PTI’s top leadership was strongly criticized on their failure to protect their female supporters from their own violent lambs, PTI, yet again, miserably failed to protect the honour, dignity and respect of their female supporters at Chairing Cross Lahore on May 1, 2016.

8. One of the worst kinds of violence these Lambs that almost each one of faces every day, is the one they demonstrate on social media. They use choicest of abuse and don’t leave any opportunity to show world about their upbringing at home and by their leadership.

That, I believe, is enough for elaborating the generally know violent, shameful and disgraceful attitude of supporters of a party which allegedly represents the educated class of our Country.
Imran epitomizes hatred , jealousy , desperation , frustration and gross mentality and it reflects in his supporters.

Now coming to the question why and how this has happened? What went wrong that our (allegedly) educated class became so violent, aggressive and abusive? My two cents in this regard are as follows:

a) While PPPP was on its way to the down stream of their dirty river of Politics and PMLN was trying to gain its power back after a long dictatorship, PTI was one of the biggest beneficiary of this political pandemonium. Then came the rise of PTI in Minar-e-Pakistan Lahore rally. Nonetheless, nothing was enough for PTI leader Imran Khan, he wanted to ascend to the throne of power by hook or by crook. He wanted more but he didn’t want trouble himself by going to tough areas of politics i.e. Karachi, interior Sindh, Baluchistan and even the dangerous area of KPK.

Punjab is fine place, even kid like Bilawal Zardari, who even go to who his maternal native place with a battalion of Govt. and private guards, can address large rallies without any hesitation. Also its Punjab that constitutes the biggest chunk of national assembly seats and you can’t become PM without winning Punjab and Imran knew that PMLN is entrenched in Punjab; they enjoy the massive vote bank here because of their development driven policies. So out of frustration, Imran resorted to shear abuse of top tear leadership of PMLN.

One still remember him calling Sharif brothers as ‘Dengue’ brothers.

Supporters followed the same line and started exhibiting similar traits towards anyone and everyone who holds a different political view.

b) Initially they were letting their frustration drained out at social media with more or less no opposition. Soon enough, the supporters of other political parties started confronting them on social media. PTI lost its social media monopoly even before the General Elections 2013. The worst part is that, as promised by their leader, PTI not only failed to clean sweep the General Elections but even failed become the second largest party in the National Assembly. This added to the frustration of its supporters.

Had their leader, faced the reality with sanity and accepted his defeat in General Elections, facing the reality for his supporters would not have been so difficult. However the leader miserably failed to act in a civilized, prudent and sportsman’s manner, so did the supporters. Irony is that now they cannot even freely drain out their frustration on Social Media. HENCE the Lambs became violent.

Now PTI’s spokesperson is blaming Chief Minister Punjab that he sent his party workers to create a scene in their rally, shows three things:

One: they failed to indentify and accept their failure again;
Two: Like leader, like spokesperson; and
Three: If in gathering of 12 thousand people, 5000 thousand were security personals and 2500 were Chief Minister Punjab’s supporters, then what happened to PTI’s HUGE support in Lahore? I believe its gone with the dirty wind.

The spokesperson’s reasoning reminded me of a practical joke: A woman, mother of two, filed for divorce in Court. The reason that she gave to the Court for divorce was, that her husband is impotent. The Lawyer asked her in open Court room if he is impotent then how about the children? Before she could have responded, in pin drop silence of Court Room, someone whispered, her husband may be impotent but not the whole neighborhood. ☺

It is never too late if you accept the faults within. Cheers!

Pakistan Cricket

Waqar Younis’s Report in 2015

Waqar Younis submitted a report with his recommendations in 2015 after World Cup and New Zealand tour. The report highlighted key issues that the team and the cricket structure faced in 2015 and Waqar put his suggestions to improve them.


The New Zealand Tour and World Cup 2015 Report

Unfortunately this tournament has ended with Pakistan’s ouster in the Quarter final against Australia which has left me deeply saddened and disappointed. It would have been great to have been on the winning side and come home with the World Cup trophy but I guess, in many ways more than one, I have come to realise our weaknesses and necessary changes required to compete at the International level in this new modern era of cricket. If we don’t make changes and move forward now, I’m afraid that Pakistan cricket will fall well behind all the other top cricketing nations.
Continue reading Waqar Younis’s Report in 2015


Hamid Mir’s Twitter Account Hacked

The twitter account of renowned journalist Hamid Mir has been hacked. Few absurd tweets have been made through this account. One tweet regarding the Prime Minister of Pakistan Nawaz Sharif and Indian foreign minister Sushma Siraj was made which suddenly gathered attention of the tweeps due to it’s absurdity.


It has been confirmed by Geo News and various colleagues of Hamid Mir that the account is hacked as well as the mobile number associated with the account is also blocked.


Important Points Of PM’s Speech At UNGA (Urdu)

وزیراعظم محمد نواز شریف کے اقوام متحدہ کی جنرل اسمبلی سے خطاب کے اہم نکات

وزیراعظم محمد نواز شریف نے بدھ کو اقوام متحدہ کی جنرل اسمبلی کے 70ویں اجلاس سے اہم خطاب کیا اور خطے کے اہم مسائل کو اجاگر کرنے کے ساتھ ساتھ ان کے حل بھی تجویز کئے۔ انہوں نے بہت سے عالمی امور کو بھی اجاگر کیا اور ان وجوہات کا تذکرہ کیا جو غربت، انتہاء پسندی، دہشتگردی اور عدم مساوات کا باعث بن رہے ہیں۔ وزیراعظم کے جنرل اسمبلی سے خطاب کے اہم نکات درج ذیل ہیں۔
٭ پاکستان دہشتگردی کا شکار بڑا ملک ہے، دہشتگردی کے خلاف جنگ میں پاکستان نے ہزاروں قربانیاں دیں۔
٭ آپریشن ضرب عضب کامیابی سے جاری ہے اور اس وقت تک جاری رہے گا جب تک دہشتگردی و انتہاء پسندی کے خاتمہ کے مقاصد حاصل نہیں کر لئے جاتے۔
٭ پاکستان پرامن ہمسائیگی کے اصول پر عمل پیرا ہے۔
٭ ہمیں سمجھنا ہوگا کہ ہمارا مشترکہ دشمن غربت ہے۔
٭ مسئلہ کشمیر کے پرامن حل کیلئے کشمیریوں کی شرکت ناگزیر ہے۔
٭ ہمارا اولین ہمسایہ خطے میں امن نہیں چاہتا۔
٭ جھوٹے وعدوں اور سفاکانہ مظالم نے کشمیر کی تین نسلیں اجاڑ دیں۔
٭ جنوبی ایشیاء میں امن اور خوشحالی کیلئے کردار ادا کرنے کو تیار ہیں۔
٭ کشمیر کو غیر مسلح کرنے کے اقدامات اٹھائے جائیں۔
٭ سیاچن کو خالی کیا جائے۔
٭ بھارت لائن آف کنٹرول پر مکمل جنگ بندی کیلئے 2003ء کے سمجھوتے کا احترام کرے۔
٭ پاکستان بھارت کسی صورت ایک دوسرے کو جنگ کی دھمکی نہ دیں۔
٭ سلامتی کونسل کے مستقل ارکان کی تعداد بڑھانے سے کوئی فائدہ نہیں ہوگا۔
٭ پاکستان اقوام متحدہ میں جامع اصلاحات کا حامی ہے، سلامتی کونسل کو طاقتور ملکوں کا توسیعی کلب نہیں بنایا جانا چاہیے بلکہ اسے زیادہ جمہوری اورموثر بنانے کے حامی ہیں۔
٭ امن کا قیام اقوام متحدہ کا کلیدی ہدف ہے، کشمیر سے متعلق قراردادوں پر عمل نہ ہونا اقوام متحدہ کی مستقل ناکامی ہے۔
٭ مسلمانوں کے خلاف نا انصافیوں کو ختم کرنا ہوگا، پاکستان وژن 2025ء کے ایجنڈے کے حصول کیلئے کوشاں ہے۔
٭ قدرتی آفات کے شکار ملکوں میں پاکستان بھی شامل ہے۔
٭ پاک چین راہداری جنوب جنوب تعاون کی بہترین مثال ہے۔
٭ بھارت کے ساتھ تعلقات کی بحالی کی متعدد بار کوشش کی۔ چاہتے ہیں دونوں ملک بات چیت کے ذریعے مسائل کا حل نکالیں۔
٭ داعش جیسی تنظیمیں دنیا کے امن کیلئے خطرہ ہیں۔
٭ کچھ ملکوں نے عوام کے حق خود ارادیت کو کچل رکھا ہے۔
٭ ذمہ دار جوہری ملک کی حیثیت سے ایٹمی عدم پھیلائو کے حامی ہیں۔


Complete Text of Prime Minister’s Speech At UNGA2015

Text of Prime Minister’s Speech:
(Urdu Text of PM’s speech is also available on our Urdu site:
We congratulate Mr. Mogens Lykketoft for his election as President of the 7oth Session of the UN General Assembly. It is acknowledgement of your distinguished career in public service. We share your commitment to action towards building a more just and stable world. We also pay tribute to Mr. Sam Kutesa for his able stewardship of the 69th Session. Mr. President, Seventy years ago, the United Nations was created from the ruins of the most devastating war the world has witnessed. Its purpose was to build universal peace and prosperity on the basis of equitable principles, cooperation and collective action.
Despite the constraints of the Cold War, the United Nations served the international community as the beacon of hope; the repository of freedom; an advocate of the oppressed; a vehicle for development and progress. But, we – the peoples of the United Nations – have not succeeded in beating our arms into ploughshares or promoting universal prosperity and larger freedoms. Confrontation has returned between major powers at a time when many parts of the world are in turmoil.
Terrorism is spreading. Poverty and deprivation have yet to be overcome. Gross violations of human rights are rampant. We are witnessing human dislocation – refugees and forced migrants – on a scale not witnessed for over half a century. Our very existence is threatened by the wanton damage done to our planet’s life sustaining systems.
Yet Mr. President, this is also a moment of opportunity. Today, our interdependent world possesses the financial, scientific and organizational capabilities to address these diverse and interrelated challenges that pose a common threat to all member states. At the historic Summit over the weekend, we have collectively committed ourselves to achieve 17 Sustainable Development Goals, to promote equitable and inclusive development for all our peoples.
The real! challenge remains – to mobilize the collective political will and resources to ensure the comprehensive implementation of the agenda we have solemnly endorsed. Pakistan has already initiated action on national goals to promote the Post-2015 Development Agenda. We are also creating a robust mechanism for the monitoring and implementation of these goals and targets. Mr. President, Later this year in Paris, we will need to respond with common but differentiated responsibility to the threat posed by Climate Change. Partisan interests must not stand in the way of an ambitious and collective commitment to halt and reverse the damage done to our planet. Mr, President, On the 70th anniversary of the UN, we should strive to adapt this world organization so as to respond effectively to the current and emerging challenges that confront us all. Pakistan supports a comprehensive reform of the United Nations, including that of the Security Council.
We need a Security Council that is more democratic, representative, accountable and transparent. A Council that reflects the interests of all member states, in accordance with the principle of sovereign equality.
Not a Council, which is an expanded club of the powerful and privileged. Mr. President, Peacekeeping has been one of the key responsibilities of the United Nations. 2 Pakistan is proud of its historic and current role as a major troop contributor. We regard it as our obligation to uphold international peace and security. Mr President, Pakistan is the primary victim of terrorism. We have lost thousands of lives including civilians and soldiers to terrorist violence. The blood that has been shed – including that of our innocent children – has reinforced our resolve to eliminate this scourge from our society. We will fight terrorism in all its forms and manifestations, irrespective of who their sponsors are. Our Operation, Zarb-e-Azb, is the largest anti-terrorism campaign against terrorists anywhere, involving over 18o,ooo of our security forces. It has made substantial progress in cleansing our country of all terrorists and will conclude only when our objective has been accomplished. This Operation is complemented by an all-inclusive National Action Plan. It encompasses police and security actions, political and legal measures and social and economic policy packages, aimed at countering violent extremism. The global threat of terrorism cannot be defeated unless we address its underlying causes. Poverty and ignorance are part of the problem.
Extremist ideologies must be opposed. But the narrative of the terrorists also has to be countered through the just resolution of the several instances of oppression and injustice against Muslims in various parts of the world. Unfortunately, some seek to use the global campaign against terrorism to suppress the legitimate right of occupied peoples to self -determination. Mr. President, The rise and spread of terrorism across the Middle East today poses unprecedented security challenges. Wracked by violence, ethnic and sectarian conflicts, and the rise of Daesh, several countries of the region are today the vortex of conflict and instability. Others are being sucked into this quagmire. The tragedy of Palestine has intensified. The accepted avenue for peace between Palestine and Israel – a two state solution – appears further away today than ever before, due to the intransigent stance of the occupying power.
Yet as I speak the proud Palestinian flag is being raised just outside this hail. We hope this is just the first step. We look forward to welcoming Palestine as a full member of the United Nations. Mr. President, Muslims are suffering across the world: Palestinians and Kashmiris oppressed by foreign occupation; persecuted minorities; and the discrimination against Muslim refugees fleeing persecution or war.
The international community must redress these injustices against the Muslim people. Mr. President, We welcome the comprehensive nuclear agreement reached between Iran and the P-Five plus One. This shows what diplomatic engagement and multilateralism can achieve. It augurs well for the peace and security of our region and beyond Mr. President, Pakistan-Afghan relations underwent a positive transformation after the advent of the National Unity Government in Kabul.
In response to the request from the Afghan Government and with the support of the international community, Pakistan made strenuous efforts to facilitate the process of Afghan reconciliation. Dialogue did open between the Afghan Government and the Taliban, which was an unprecedented first. But it was unfortunate that certain developments stalled the process. Thereafter, militant attacks intensified, which we unequivocally condemn. Pakistan will persist in the endeavor to help resume the dialogue process and promote peace and stability in Afghanistan. We can, however, do so only if we receive the required cooperation from the Afghan government.
Tensions between Afghanistan and Pakistan are in neither country’s interests. We are encouraged that the international community, including the major powers, desire continuation of the peace process in Afghanistan. 4 Mr o President, Pakistan greatly appreciates China’s proactive role in promoting peace and prosperity in Afghanistan and our region. We welcome China’s vision of “One Belt, One Road”. The China-Pakistan Economic Corridor, announced during President Xi Jinping’s visit to Pakistan earlier this year wil! spur regional economic integration and bring prosperity to the entire region and beyond.
This is an inspiring model of South-South cooperation that should be emulated. We also welcome Russia’s greater focus on Asian cooperation. The Shanghai Cooperation Organization, which Pakistan will be joining this year as a full member, holds great promise for promoting regional connectivity. Mr. President, The history of South Asia is one of missed opportunities. Among its dire consequences is the persistence of poverty and deprivation in our region. Development is my Government’s first priority and has underpinned my policy to build a peaceful neighborhood. Our peoples need peace to prosper. Peace can be achieved through dialogue, not disengagement.
In 1997 when the Composite Dialogue was launched with India, our two countries agreed that this would encompass two principal items: Kashmir and Peace and Security, along with six other issues, including terrorism. The primacy and urgency of addressing these two issues is even more compelling today. Consultations with Kashmiris, who are an integral part of the dispute, are essential to evolving a peaceful solution. Since 1947, the Kashmir dispute has remained unresolved. UN Security Council resolutions have remained unimplemented. Three generations of Kashmiris have only seen broken promises and brutal oppression. Over lOO,OOO have died in their struggle for self-determination. This is the most persistent failure of the United Nations.
Mr President, When I assumed office of the Prime Minister of Pakistan in June 2o13, for the third time, one of my first priorities was to normalize relations with India. I reached out to the Indian leadership to emphasize that our common enemy was poverty and underdevelopment. Cooperation, not confrontation, should define, our relationship. Yet today ceasefire violations along the Line of Control and the Working Boundary are intensifying, causing civilian deaths including women and children. Wisdom dictates that our immediate neighbor refrains from fomenting instability in Pakistan.
The two countries should address and resolve the causes of tension and take all possible measures to avert further escalation. That is why I want to use the opportunity today to propose a new peace initiative with India, starting with measures that are the simplest to implement: One, we propose that Pakistan and India formalize and respect the 2003 understanding for a complete ceasefire on the Line of Control in Kashmir. For this purpose, we call for UNMOGIP’s expansion to monitor the observance of the ceasefire.
Two, we propose, that Pakistan and India reaffirm that they will not resort to the use or the threat of use of force under any circumstances. This is a central element of the UN Charter. Three, steps be taken to demilitarize Kashmir. Four, agree to an unconditional mutual withdrawal from Siachen Glacier, the world’s highest battleground. An easing of threat perceptions through such peace efforts will make it possible for Pakistan and India to agree on a broad range of measures to address the peril posed by offensive and advanced weapons systems.
Pakistan neither wants to, nor is it engaged in, an arms race in South Asia. We cannot however remain oblivious to the evolving security dynamics and arms buildup in our region, which obliges us to take essential steps to maintain our security. As a responsible nuclear weapon state, Pakistan will continue to support the objectives of nuclear disarmament and non-proliferation. We have maintained the highest standards of nuclear security and have established an effective regime to ensure the safety and security of our nuclear facilities and stocks. South Asia needs strategic stability and this requires serious dialogue to achieve nuclear restraint, conventional balance and conflict resolution. Finally Mr. President, We look forward to playing our part to build a brighter era of peace and prosperity in South Asia. We owe it to our people and to succeeding generations.
I thank you Mr. President.